Seminars in quantum nanophysics

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colloquium, Saturday, September 28, 2019, , 11:30 am
Victor Yakovenko (University of Maryland)
Superconductivity that breaks time-reversal symmetry and its experimental manifestations

Since 2006, it has been found experimentally that superconductivity spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in certain materials, such as Sr2RuO4, UPt3, URu2Si2, and Bi/Ni bilayers. In the latter case, we argue that the superconducting order parameter has the winding number of +-2 around the Fermi surface, thus making Bi/Ni bilayers a rare example of intrinsic 2D topological superconductivity [1]. The experimental evidence for TRS breaking comes from the polar Kerr effect, which is rotation of polarization of normally incident light upon reflection from the sample. Theoretical studies indicate that this effect is possible only if a superconductor has more than one band. To clarify these conditions, we study a model of chiral TRS-breaking superconductivity on the honeycomb lattice [2]. We consider superconducting pairing on the neighboring sites belonging to different sublattices. The matrix of this superconducting pairing is non-unitary and does not commute with the normal-state Hamiltonian. We find that the latter condition is necessary for experimental manifestations of the TRS breaking. We show that such superconducting pairing generates persistent loop currents around each lattice site and opens a topological mass gap at the Dirac points with the corresponding chiral edge states, as in Haldane's model of the quantum anomalous Hall effect. We calculate the intrinsic ac Hall conductivity in the absence of an external magnetic field, which determines the polar Kerr effect, and show that it is proportional to the loop-current order parameter.

  • [1] X. Gong, M. Kargarian, A. Stern, D. Yue, H. Zhou, X. Jin, V. M. Galitski, V. M. Yakovenko, and J. Xia, Science Advances 3, e1602579 (2017), arXiv:1609.08538
  • [2] P. M. R. Brydon, D. S. L. Abergel, D. F. Agterberg, and V. M. Yakovenko, arXiv:1802.02280

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 28, 2018, Landau Institute, 3:00 pm
Werner Krauth, Ecole normale supérieure, Paris (France)
Irreversible Markov chains: From the TASEP to all-atom Coulomb computations

The Markov chain Monte Carlo method traditionally consists in exploring large configuration spaces using a reversible random walk where moves are accepted or rejected based on an energy criterion. In this talk, I will present recent progress on irreversible Markov chains that challenge this picture. In one-dimensional particle systems, the new algorithms are related to the TASEP (totally asymmetric simple exclusion model). We can rigorously prove that they mix on much shorter time scales than the reversible Metropolis algorithms. I will then show how these algorithms sample the Boltzmann distribution (and thus explore configuration space) without computing the energy. In long-range interacting systems, where the computation of the energy is time-consuming, this provides a key advantage for the new method. For locally charge-neutral systems in three dimensions, we obtain a highly efficient algorithm, of N log N complexity in the number N of particles. I discuss the main paradox of this method: How is it possible to sample the Boltzmann distribution without computing the energy, and then review some recent successes as well as prospects and challenges for irreversible Markov chains in statistical physics.
S. C. Kapfer, W. Krauth, Physical Review Letters 119, 240603 (2017)
Z. Lei, W. Krauth, arXiv:1806.06786 (2018)
M. F. Faulkner, L. Qin, A. C. Maggs, W. Krauth, arXiv:1804.05795 (2018)

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 28, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Victor Yakovenko (University of Maryland)
Superconductivity that breaks time-reversal symmetry and its experimental manifestations

Since 2006, it has been found experimentally that superconductivity spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in certain materials, such as Sr2RuO4, UPt3, URu2Si2, and Bi/Ni bilayers. In the latter case, we argue that the superconducting order parameter has the winding number of +-2 around the Fermi surface, thus making Bi/Ni bilayers a rare example of intrinsic 2D topological superconductivity [1]. The experimental evidence for TRS breaking comes from the polar Kerr effect, which is rotation of polarization of normally incident light upon reflection from the sample. Theoretical studies indicate that this effect is possible only if a superconductor has more than one band. To clarify these conditions, we study a model of chiral TRS-breaking superconductivity on the honeycomb lattice [2]. We consider superconducting pairing on the neighboring sites belonging to different sublattices. The matrix of this superconducting pairing is non-unitary and does not commute with the normal-state Hamiltonian. We find that the latter condition is necessary for experimental manifestations of the TRS breaking. We show that such superconducting pairing generates persistent loop currents around each lattice site and opens a topological mass gap at the Dirac points with the corresponding chiral edge states, as in Haldane's model of the quantum anomalous Hall effect. We calculate the intrinsic ac Hall conductivity in the absence of an external magnetic field, which determines the polar Kerr effect, and show that it is proportional to the loop-current order parameter.
[1] X. Gong, M. Kargarian, A. Stern, D. Yue, H. Zhou, X. Jin, V. M. Galitski, V. M. Yakovenko, and J. Xia, Science Advances 3, e1602579 (2017), arXiv:1609.08538
[2] P. M. R. Brydon, D. S. L. Abergel, D. F. Agterberg, and V. M. Yakovenko, arXiv:1802.02280

Theory seminar, Thursday, September 13, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Alexey Kitaev (Caltech)
Statistical mechanics of a two-dimensional black hole

Rassmatrivaemaya zadacha voznikla pri izuchenii modeli SYK, kotoraya sostoit iz bol'shogo chisla vzaimodeistvuyushchikh fermionov (vzaimodeistvie «vse so vsemi», t.e. effektivnaya razmernost' sistemy — 0+1). Pri nizkoi temperature vazhnuyu rol' igraet myagkaya moda s deistviem, vyrazhayushchimsya cherez shvartsian. Eto deistvie ekvivalento dvumernoi gravitatsii s dilatonom v opredelennom predele. Pervaya chast' doklada posvyashchena obzoru upomyanutykh rezul'tatov. Zatem shvartsiannaya moda (ili dvumernaya gravitatsiya) budet rassmotrena kak otdel'naya kvantovaya sistema. Statsumma v etoi modeli imeet neobychnoe vyrazhenie: Z = tr(e-βHP), gde P — opredelennyi operator, kommutiruyushchii s gamil'tonianom.


Theory seminar, Thursday, September 6, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Denis Ullmo (LPTMS, CNRS-Universite Paris-Sud)
Post-Ehrenfest many-body quantum interferences in ultracold atoms far-out-of-equilibrium

Recent experimental progress with ultracold atomic gases has made it possible to investigate in exquisite detail the far out-of-equilibrium many-body quantum dynamics of isolated systems. This dynamics necessarily generates interferences beyond an Ehrenfest time scale, where quantum and classical expectation values diverge. Theoretically speaking, the heavily-relied-upon truncated Wigner approximation leaves out these interferences.

In this talk, I will present a semiclassical theory which bridges classical and quantum concepts in many-body bosonic systems and properly incorporates such missing quantum effects. For mesoscopically populated Bose-Hubbard systems, this theory captures post-Ehrenfest quantum interference phenomena very accurately.

Theory seminar, Thursday, July 5, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 5:10 pm
Yigal Meir (Department of Physics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel)
Spontaneous Time-Reversal Breaking and Edge Reconstruction in Quantum Hall and Topological Insulators

Topological states, such as the quantum Hall state or the quantum spin Hall state, are usually bulk insulators, with helical edge states that may carry current. The edge structure of such two dimensional systems is usually studied with sharp boundary conditions in spite of the fact that the confining potential in physical systems is expected to be smooth. It is shown that such a smooth confining potential may lead to edge reconstruction and formation of additional edge states. This is demonstrated explicitly for the case of integer and fractional quantum Hall systems, explaining several recent experimental puzzles. Moreover, the effect is also manifested in two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), which are predicted to support helical edge modes that come in counter-propagating pairs, due to the time-reversal symmetry (TRS). The TRS protection of these edge states led to various suggested applications of TIs, ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Here edge reconstruction leads to spontaneous TRS breaking, a finite Hall resistance at zero magnetic field and possible spin current. Such spontaneous TRS breaking may have important implications on transport properties and possible applications.

Theory seminar, Thursday, July 5, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 4:00 pm
Yuval Oreg (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel)
Spin liquids from Majorana Zero Modes in a network of Cooper Boxes

Spin liquid phases are insulating states of matter with unique properties. In certain cases the phase hosts edge modes, end modes, and emergent non-abelian quasiparticles. The latter is a key element in several suggestions for topological quantum computation. In this talk, I`ll describe a proposal to construct a platform for creating effective spin models using semiconductor nanowires. The wires are tuned to the topological regime; with Majorana zero modes on each end. We group them into three-wires building blocks called hexons, each containing six Majorana zero modes. In the presence of a strong charging energy, the hexon becomes a Cooper box that is equivalent to two spin-1/2 degrees of freedom. This structure enables a flexible control (using local gates only) of the couplings between the Majorana zero modes. This tuning of the Hamiltonian governing the low energy effective spins, provides us with a path of simulating interacting spin-models in one- and two-dimensions. I will describe several examples including realizations of different phases of 1/2 Heisenberg spin chains, topological spin phases on a two dimensional Fisher lattice and their experimental signature.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, June 22, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
L. Glazman (Yale University)
Quantum Many-Body Physics of Qubits

The ongoing development of superconducting qubits has brought some basic questions of many-body physics to the research forefront, and in some cases helped solving them. I will address two effects in quantum condensed matter highlighted by the development of a fluxonium qubit. The first one is the so-called cosine-phi problem stemming from the seminal paper of Brian Josephson: the predicted there phase dependence of the dissipative current across a Josephson junction was observed in a fluxonium, after nearly 50 years of unsuccessful attempts by other techniques. The second one is the dynamics of a weakly-pinned charge density wave: we predict that the dynamics may be revealed in measurements of microwave reflection off a superinductor, which is a key element of the fluxonium.

Theory seminar, Thursday, June 7, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
A.Yu. Kuntsevich (FIAN)
Elektronnye svoistva dopirovannykh khal'kogenidov vismuta

Khal'kogenidy vismuta yavlyayutsya topologicheskimi izolyatorami s naibol'shimi shirinami zapreshchennoi zony. Pri dopirovanii Bi2Se3 med'yu, strontsiem ili niobiem Bi2Se3 stanovitsya sverkhprovodyashchim (predpolozhitel'no, nematicheskim topologicheskim sverkhprovodnikom).

V doklade budet dan obzor imeyushchikhsya na segodnyashnii den' dannykh o nematicheskoi sverkhprovodimosti dannogo materiala, v tom chisle i nashi rezul'taty o korrelyatsii nematichnosti so strukturnymi iskazheniyami [arXiv:1801.09287].

Takzhe ya rasskazhu o chasto obsuzhdaemom v literature izmerenii fazy Berri iz magnitoostsillyatsii. Nami privedeny prostye makroskopicheskie argumenty [Phys. Rev. B 97, 195431 (2018)], pochemu v real'nykh topologicheskikh izolyatorakh eta faza mozhet sil'no otlichat'sya ot teoreticheski ozhidaemogo znacheniya.

Theory seminar, Thursday, May 31, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Baruch Meerson (Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
Large deviations of surface height in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation

The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation describes an important universality class of nonequilibrium stochastic growth. There has been a surge of recent interest in the one-point probability distribution P(H,t) of height H of the evolving interface at time t in one dimension. I will show how one can use the optimal fluctuation method (OFM) to evaluate P(H,t) for different initial conditions and in different dimensions.

In one dimension the central part of the short-time height distribution is Gaussian, but the tails are non-Gaussian and strongly asymmetric. One interesting initial condition is an ensemble of Brownian interfaces, where we found a singularity of the large deviation function of the height at a critical value of |H|. This singularity results from a breakdown of mirror symmetry of the optimal path of the system, and it has the character of a second-order phase transition. At d>2 the OFM is valid, in the weak-coupling regime, at all times. Here the long-time height distribution P(H) is time-independent, and we use the OFM to determine the Gaussian body and strongly asymmetric non-Gaussian tails of P(H).

Theory seminar, Thursday, May 17, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
D.A. Bandurin (School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester, UK)
Electron hydrodynamics in graphene: introduction and status

Transport in systems with many particles experiencing frequent mutual collisions (such as gases or liquids) has been studied for more than two centuries and is accurately described by the theory of hydrodynamics. It has been argued theoretically for a long time that the collective behavior of charge carriers in solids can also be treated by the hydrodynamic approach. However, despite many attempts, very little evidence of hydrodynamic electron transport has been found so far. Graphene encapsulated between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) offers an ideal platform to study electron hydrodynamics as it hosts an ultra-clean electronic system with the electron-electron mean free path being the shortest lengths scale in the problem. In the first part of my talk we will discuss why electron hydrodynamics has not been observed before and how it manifests itself in electron transport. Furthermore, it will be shown that electrons in graphene can behave as a very viscous fluid (more viscous than honey) forming vortices of applied electron current [1]. In the second part, we will discuss the measurements of the viscosity of an electron fluid by its superballistic flow through graphene point contacts [2]. Then we will talk about the behavior of electron fluids in the presence of magnetic field where I will report the experimental measurements of the Hall viscosity in two dimensions [3]. This dissipationless transport coefficient has been widely discussed in theoretical literature on fluid mechanics, plasma physics and condensed matter physics, yet, until now, any experimental evidence has been lacking, making the phenomenon truly a unicorn. Last but not least, we will discuss how electron hydrodynamics can be used for the development of resonant terahertz photodetectors.

References: [1] D.A. Bandurin, A. Principi, G.H. Auton, E. Khestanova, K.S. Novoselov, I.V Grigorieva, L.A. Ponomarenko, A.K. Geim, and M. Polini, Science 351, 1055 (2016). [2] R.K. Kumar, D.A. Bandurin, F.M.D. Pellegrino, Y. Cao, A. Principi, H. Guo, G.H. Auton, M. Ben Shalom, L.A. Ponomarenko, G. Falkovich, I.V. Grigorieva, L.S. Levitov, M. Polini, and A.K. Geim, Nat. Phys. 13, 1182 (2017). [3] A.I. Berdyugin, S.G. Xu, F.M.D. Pellegrino, R. Krishna Kumar, A. Principi, I. Torre, M. Ben Shalom, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, I.V. Grigorieva, M. Polini, A.K. Geim, and D.A. Bandurin, to appear on arxiv soon.

(seminar provoditsya sovmestno s laboratoriei FKS VShE)

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 27, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
M.V. Feigel'man, D.A. Ivanov, E. Cuevas
Dielectric response of Anderson and pseudogapped insulators

Using a combination of analytic and numerical methods, we study the polarizability of a (non-interacting) Anderson insulator in one, two, and three dimensions and demonstrate that, in a wide range of parameters, it scales proportionally to the square of the localization length, contrary to earlier claims based on the effective-medium approximation. We further analyze the effect of electron-electron interactions on the dielectric constant in quasi-1D, quasi-2D and 3D materials with large localization length, including both Coulomb repulsion and phonon-mediated attraction. The phonon-mediated attraction (in the pseudogapped state on the insulating side of the Superconductor-Insulator Transition) produces a correction to the dielectric constant, which may be detected from a linear response of a dielectric constant to an external magnetic field.

Seminar na Fizfake MGU, Tuesday, April 17, 2018, Fizfak MGU, aud. 3-32b, 5:00 pm
Tuğrul Hakioğlu (Department of Physics and Energy Institute, İstanbul Technical University, Turkey)
Understanding the Skyrmion Anomalies in Strong Topological Insulators: An Interaction Approach

Interactions between the surface and the bulk in a topological insulator (TI) cause a finite quasiparticle lifetime of the topological surface states (TSS) as shown by the recent experiments for Bi2X3 (X=Se,Te). Previously, hexagonally warped topological band has been detected and other anomalies related to warping have been reported. The most remarkable among which is the 6-fold periodic spin canting anomaly (SCA) of the in-plane spin around the spin-1/2 vortex.

This talk is focused on understanding this SCA from an interaction point of view between the TSS and the bulk. We first device a general scheme based on interactions and the spin-off-diagonal component of the self energy. It is shown that, the spin-off diagonal interaction channel is topology preserving. Then the effective interaction strength, strong spin-orbit coupling and the Fermi surface warping is shown to cooperate in giving rise to the periodic spin canting anomaly. Our result points at the presence of the topology friendly interaction channels in strong TIs.

KAK POPAST' NA SEMINAR: Na fizfake MGU propusknoi rezhim, zhelatel'no imet' s soboi pasport. Organizatory vstretyat uchastnikov. Telefon organizatora: +7-911-703-2266 (Mikhail Evgen'evich Zhuravlev).

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 13, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Pavel Grigor'ev
Magnetic oscillations of in-plane conductivity in quasi-two-dimensional metals

We develop the theory of transverse magnetoresistance in layered quasi-two-dimensional metals. Using the Kubo formula and harmonic expansion we calculate intralayer conductivity in a magnetic field perpendicular to conducting layers. The analytical expressions for the amplitudes and phases of magnetic quantum oscillations (MQO) and of the so-called slow oscillations (SlO) are derived and applied to analyze their behavior as a function of several parameters: magnetic field strength, interlayer transfer integral and the Landau-level width. Both the MQO and SlO of intralayer and interlayer conductivity have approximately opposite phase in weak magnetic field and the same phase in strong field. The amplitude of SlO of intralayer conductivity changes sign at $\omega_c\tau\approx\sqrt{3}$. There are several other qualitative differences between magnetic oscillations of in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity. The results obtained are useful to analyze experimental data on magnetoresistance oscillations in various strongly anisotropic quasi-2D metals.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 30, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Alex Kamenev (University of Minnesota)
Dynamic phase transition in rare events statistics of 1D KPZ problem

I will review the concept of non-equilibrium phase transitions in rare events statistics as well as a recent dramatic progress in studies of 1D KPZ. The focus of my talk is on the reflection symmetry breaking phase transition recently found stationary KPZ problem:

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 23, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Markus Garst (TU Dresden)
Chiral magnetic crystals

The weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in chiral cubic magnets like MnSi, FeGe or Cu2OSeO3 twists the magnetization on long length scales resulting in spatially periodic magnetic textures — magnetic crystals. There exist especially magnetic crystals with a one- and two-dimensional periodicity corresponding to the magnetic helix and the topologically non-trivial skyrmion lattice, respectively. In this talk, we provide an overview of their properties. In particular, we discuss the crystallization process of these magnetic crystals that is characterized by strongly correlated chiral paramagnons that drive the transition first-order [1,2]. This fluctuation-induced first-order transition is well described by a theory put forward by Brazovskii. We will introduce the magnon band structure and their non-reciprocal properties in the presence of a magnetic field [3,4]. For the skyrmion lattice, this band structure is topological and characterized by finite Chern numbers that can be attributed to the formation of magnon Landau levels due to an emergent orbital magnetic field [5,6,7]. Finally, we will discuss domain walls of helimagnets that share similarities with grain boundaries consisting of disclination and dislocation defects of the helimagnetic order [8].

References: [1] M. Janoschek et al. Phys. Rev. B 87, 134407 (2013). [2] A. Bauer, M. Garst and C. Pfleiderer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177207 (2013). [3] M. Kugler et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 097203 (2015) [4] T. Weber et al. arXiv:1708.02098 [5] C. Schütte and M. Garst, Phys. Rev. B 90, 094423 (2014). [6] T. Schwarze, J. Waizner, M. Garst, A. Bauer, I. Stasinopoulos, H. Berger, C. Pfleiderer, and D. Grundler, Nat. Mater. 14, 478 (2015). [7] M. Garst J. Waizner, and D. Grundler, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 293002 (2017) [8] P. Schoenherr et al. Nat. Phys. in press, arXiv:1704.06288

Theory seminar, Thursday, March 22, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:00 am
V.E. Kravtsov (Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste)
Duality in Power-Law Localization in Disordered One-Dimensional Systems

The transport of excitations between pinned particles in many physical systems may be mapped to single-particle models with power-law hopping, 1/rα. For randomly spaced particles, these models present an effective peculiar disorder that leads to surprising localization properties. We show that in one-dimensional systems almost all eigenstates (except for a few states close to the ground state) are power-law localized for any value of α > 0. Moreover, we show that our model is an example of a new universality class of models with power-law hopping, characterized by a duality between systems with long-range hops (α < 1) and short-range hops (α > 1), in which the wave function amplitude falls off algebraically with the same power γ from the localization center.

The paper has just been published: X. Deng, V. E. Kravtsov, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and L. Santos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 110602 (2018).

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, January 26, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
I.S. Burmistrov
Differential Poisson's ratio of a crystalline two-dimensional membrane

We compute analytically the differential Poisson's ratio of a suspended two-dimensional crystalline membrane embedded into a space of large dimensionality $d \gg 1$. We demonstrate that, in the regime of anomalous Hooke's law, the differential Poisson's ratio approaches a universal value determined solely by the spatial dimensionality $d_c$, with a power-law expansion $\nu = -1/3 + 0.016/d_c + O(1/d_c^2)$, where $d_c=d-2$. Thus, the value $-1/3$ predicted in previous literature holds only in the limit $d_c\to \infty$.

Theory seminar, Thursday, January 25, 2018, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Vladimir Manucharyan (University of Maryland)
Quantum simulation of Luttinger liquid physics in Josephson transmission lines

Here we present the first quantum simulator for an impurity scattering in interacting 1D wires. The simulator consists of a transmission line made out of more than 30,000 Josephson junctions serving as a high-impedance media for microwave photons and a small phase slip Josephson junction playing the role of a back-scattering impurity. The system can be described by a boundary sine-Gordon model where the interaction strength is defined as g = Z/Rq with Z being the transmission line impedance and Rq = 6.5 kOhm the resistance quantum. By measuring scattering amplitudes and a spectrum of inelastically scattered microwave photons we can find the first and higher order correlation functions related to an AC conductance of the impurity. The controllability of the transmission line parameters and the finite size of the system allow us to fabricate lines with impedances exceeding Rq while keeping the phase slip rate of the line’s junctions very low. It gives us the unique opportunity to test Luttinger liquid physics at both sides of the critical point g = 1. A similar experimental setup can be used to simulate a Kondo impurity.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, January 19, 2018, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
I.S. Burmistrov
Mesoscopic Stoner instability: Suppression by tunneling to a reservoir

We derive the generalized Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon action which governs the dynamics of the charge and spin degrees of freedom for the quantum dot described by the universal Hamiltonian and tunnel coupled to a reservoir. Contrary to previous works, we derive this dissipative action without the following assumptions (i) the absolute value of the spin is not a ected by the tunneling coupling to a reservoir and (ii) the spin rotates slowly such that the adiabatic approximation holds. We use the derived dissipative action for analysis of stability of the mesoscopic Stoner phenomenon with respect to the electron tunneling to a reservoir. We nd that at nite temperature the electron tunneling suppresses the mesoscopic Stoner instability at tunneling conductance which depends on temperature. At zero temperature we predict the existence of the quantum phase transition between the mesoscopic Stoner phase and the paramagnetic phase.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 15, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
A.M. Dyugaev
Poverkhnostnye mikrochastitsy v zhidkom gelii. Kvantovyi zakon Arkhimeda

Issledovany otkloneniya ot zakona Arkhimeda dlya sfericheskikh chastits radiusa R0, vypolnennykh iz molekulyarnogo vodoroda u poverkhnosti zhidkogo He4. Klassicheskii zakon Arkhimeda imeet mesto, esli R0 bol'she kapillyarnoi dliny geliya Lk ≅ 500 µm. Pri etom velichina vozvysheniya chastitsy nad zhidkost'yu h+ ~ R0. V oblasti 30 < R0 < 500 µm sila Arkhimeda podavlyaetsya siloi poverkhnostnogo natyazheniya i h+~ R03⁄Lk2. Pri R0 < 30 µm chastitsa nakhoditsya pod poverkhnost'yu zhidkosti. Zdes' sila Arkhimeda konkuriruet s siloi Kazimira, kotoraya ottalkivaet chastitsu ot poverkhnosti vglub' zhidkosti. Rasstoyanie chastitsy do poverkhnosti h- ~ Rs5⁄3⁄R02⁄3, esli R0 > Rs. Zdes' Rs – masshtab, nabrannyi, v osnovnom, iz mirovykh postoyannykh, Rs ≈ (?c/?g)1⁄5 ≈ 1µm. (? - postoyannaya Planka, c - skorost' sveta, g – uskorenie svobodnogo padeniya, ?He – plotnost' geliya). Dlya ochen' malen'kikh chastits ( R0 < Rs) rasstoyanie do poverkhnosti zhidkosti h- ne zavisit ot ikh razmera h- = Rs.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 15, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P.D. Grigor'ev
Medlennye ostsillyatsii magnitosoprotivleniya v vysokotemperaturnykh sverkhprovodnikakh YBCO: ikh chastota daet ploshchad' karmanov poverkhnosti Fermi ili velichinu mezhsloevogo pereskoka elektronov

Nablyudaemye magnitnykh kvantovye ostsillyatsii (MKO) v vysokotemperaturnykh sverkhprovodnikakh YBCO (YBa2Cu3O6 +x i YBa2Cu4O8) imeyut dovol'no neobychnyi sostav garmonik. Preobrazovanie Fur'e etikh MKO soderzhit tri blizkikh ravnoudalennykh pika pri dostatochno nizkikh chastotakh ~530T i 530+-90T, chto sootvetstvuet okolo 2% zony Brillyuena, prichem tsentral'nyi pik imeet amplitudu v ~2 raza vyshe, chem dva pika s kazhdoi iz storon. Obshcheprinyatoe ob'yasnenie takikh kvantovykh ostsillyatsii predpolagaet perestroiku iskhodnoi bol'shoi poverkhnosti Fermi iz-za fluktuiruyushchei volny zaryadovoi plotnosti (VZP). Odnako takoe ob'yasnenie imeet ryad sushchestvennykh nedostatkov. Naprimer, ono predpolagaet takzhe nabor drugikh blizkikh chastot MKO, kotorye ne nablyudayutsya eksperimental'no. Krome etogo, v etoi modeli nablyudaemye chastoty MKO dolzhny sil'no zaviset' ot urovnya dopirovaniya, chto takzhe ne nablyudaetsya v eksperimente. My predlagaem al'ternativnuyu interpretatsiyu nablyudaemykh magnitnykh ostsillyatsii v YBCO, kotoraya dovol'no estestvennym obrazom ob'yasnyaet nablyudaemuyu kartinu bez dopolnitel'nykh podgonochnykh parametrov. Eta predlagaemaya model' MKO uchityvaet dvukhsloinuyu kristallicheskuyu strukturu YBCO i vklyuchaet sootvetstvuyushchee rasshcheplenie elektronnogo spektra i dispersiyu elektronov perpendikulyarno provodyashchim sloyam. Pri etom osnovnaya nablyudaemaya chastota ~530T sootvetstvuet velichine bisloinogo rasshchepleniya, a ne malomu karmanu poverkhnosti Fermi (PF), vyzvannomu ee perestroikoi iz-za VZP. Takie "medlennye" magnitnye ostsillyatsii poyavlyayutsya dazhe bez perestroiki PF i pochti ne zavisyat ot urovnya dopirovaniya. Krome togo, v otlichie ot obychnykh MKO, eti "medlennye" ostsillyatsii ne podavlyayutsya dlinnovolnovoi prostranstvennoi neodnorodnost'yu obraztsa, tipichnoi dlya VTSP kristallov i privodyashchei k razmytiyu urovnya Fermi vdol' obraztsa. Poetomu oni legche nablyudayutsya v eksperimente. Predlozhennaya interpretatsiya pozvolyaet razreshit' «protivorechie» dannykh ARPES i MKO, a takzhe ob'yasnyaet nekotorye drugie osobennosti nablyudaemykh MKO v YBCO, kotorye dovol'no slozhno ob'yasnit' stsenariem perestroiki PF vyzvannoi VZP.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, November 17, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P. D. Kurilovich, V. D. Kurilovich, I. S. Burmistrov, M. Goldstein
Helical edge transport in the presence of anisotropic magnetic impurity

We consider the effects of electron scattering on a quantum magnetic impurity on the current-voltage characteristics of the helical edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator. We compute the backscattering contribution to the current along the edge for a general form of the exchange interaction matrix and arbitrary value of the magnetic impurity spin. We find that the differential conductance might be a non-monotonous function of the voltage with several extrema. Effects of magnetic anisotropy for the impurity are considered.

Theory seminar, Thursday, November 16, 2017, Kapitza Institute, 11:00 am
M.M. Glazov (Fiziko-tekhnicheskii institut im. A.F. Ioffe RAN)
Spinovye fluktuatsii elektronov v poluprovodnikakh

V poslednie desyat' let voznik interes k izucheniyu fluktuatsii spinov elektronov i elektron-dyrochnykh kompleksov v poluprovodnikakh i poluprovodnikovykh nanosistemakh. V doklade predstavlena teoriya spinovykh fluktuatsii elektronov, lokalizovannykh v poluprovodnikovykh kvantovykh tochkakh, ili svyazannykh na donorakh v ob'emnom poluprovodnike, uchityvayushchaya sverkhtonkoe vzaimodeistvie spinov nositelei zaryada so spinami yader osnovnoi reshetki. Pokazano, chto spektr spinovykh shumov neset informatsiyu kak o funktsii raspredeleniya yadernykh polei, tak i o pryzhkakh elektronov mezhdu tsentrami lokalizatsii. Analiziruyutsya proyavleniya v spektre shumov obmennogo vzaimodeistviya mezhdu elektronami, lokalizovannymi na sosednikh tsentrakh. Rezul'taty teorii sopostavleny s dannymi eksperimentov.

Literatura: [1] M. M. Glazov and E. L. Ivchenko, Spin noise in quantum dot ensembles, Phys. Rev. B 86, 115308 (2012). [2] D.S. Smirnov, M.M. Glazov, E.L. Ivchenko, Vliyanie obmennogo vzaimodeistviya na spinovye fluktuatsii lokalizovannykh elektronov, FTT 54, 254 (2014). [3] M. M. Glazov, Spin noise of localized electrons: Interplay of hopping and hyperfine interaction, Phys. Rev. B 91, 195301 (2015). [4] A. V. Shumilin, E. Ya. Sherman, and M. M. Glazov, Spin dynamics of hopping electrons in quantum wires: Algebraic decay and noise, Phys. Rev. B 94, 125305 (2016). [5] Ph. Glasenapp, D. S. Smirnov, A. Greilich, J. Hackmann, M. M. Glazov, F. B. Anders, and M. Bayer, Spin noise of electrons and holes in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Experiment and theory, Phys. Rev. B 93, 205429 (2016).

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 27, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P.L. Stroganov, Ya.V. Fominov
Cooper pair splitting in ballistic ferromagnetic SQUIDs

We consider ballistic SQUIDs with spin filtering inside half-metallic ferromagnetic arms. A singlet Cooper pair cannot pass through an arm in this case, so the Josephson current is entirely due to the Cooper pair splitting, with two electrons going to different interferometer arms. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Josephson transport due to split Cooper pairs, we assume the arms to be single-channel wires in the short-junction limit. Different geometries of the system (determined by the length of the arms and the phases acquired by quasiparticles during splitting between the arms) lead to qualitatively different behavior of the SQUID characteristics (the Andreev levels, the current-phase relation, and the critical Josephson current) as a function of two control parameters, the external magnetic flux and misorientation of the two spin filters. The current-phase relation can change its amplitude and shape, in particular, turning to a pi-junction form or acquiring additional zero crossings. The critical current can become a nonmonotonic function of the misorientation of the spin filters and the magnetic flux (on half of period). Periodicity with respect to the magnetic flux is doubled, in comparison to conventional SQUIDs.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 20, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
L. Ioffe. M. Feigel'man
Mikrovolnovye svoistva sverkhprovodnikov vblizi perekhoda v izolyator

Predlozhena osnova teorii kollektivnykh mod v sil'no neuporyadochennykh sverkhprovodnikakh, nakhodyashchikhsya vblizi kvantovogo perekhoda v dielektricheskoe sostoyanie. Pokazano, chto s priblizheniem parametrov sverkhprovodnika k kvantovoi kriticheskoi tochke, v spektre vozbuzhdenii s neizbezhnost'yu voznikaet nenulevaya plotnost' nizkolezhashchikh (s energiyami sushchestvenno nizhe sverkhprovodyashchei shcheli) sostoyanii. Pri eshche bol'shem besporyadke eti podshchelevye sostoyaniya okazyvayutsya delokalizovannymi, chto dolzhno privodit' k zametnoi dissipatsii v mikrovolnovom otklike.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 6, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Igor Poboiko and Mikhail Feigel'man
Paraconductivity of pseudogapped superconductors

We calculate Aslamazov-Larkin paraconductity for a model of strongly disordered superconductors (dimensions d=2,3) with a large pseudogap whose magnitude strongly exceeds transition temperature Tc. We show that, within Gaussian approximation over Cooper-pair fluctuations, paraconductivity is just twice larger that the classical AL result at the same ε = (T-Tc)/Tc. Upon decreasing ε, Gaussian approximation is violated due to local fluctuations of pairing fields that become relevant at ε < ε1 « 1. Characteristic scale ε1 is much larger than the width ε2 of the thermodynamical critical region, that is determined via the Ginzburg criterion, ε2 ≈ ε1d. We argue that in the intermediate region ε2 < ε < ε1 paraconductivity follows the same AL power law, albeit with another (yet unknown) numerical prefactor. At further decrease of the temperature, all kinds of fluctuational corrections become strong at ε < ε2; in particular, conductivity occurs to be strongly inhomogenuous in real space.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 22, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
A.V. Lunkin, K.S. Tikhonov, M.V. Feigel'man
Perturbed Kitaev model: excitation spectrum and long-ranged spin correlations

Dlya modeli Kitaeva na shestiugol'noi reshetki s razlichnymi tipami vozmushchenii byl razrabotan metod podscheta korrelyatsionnoi funktsii spin-spin v infrakrasnom predele. Bylo pokazano, chto zadacha o podschete dannoi funktsii mozhet byt' svedena k zadache o nakhozhdenii korrelyatsionnoi funktsii kvadratichnykh operatorov, sostoyashchikh iz svobodnykh Maioranovskikh fermionov. Pri etom vklad vysshikh poryadkov teorii vozmushchenii dlya iskhodnoi zadachi mozhet byt' uchten kak kvadratichnoe vozmushchenie dlya etikh fermionov. V kachestve prilozhenii rassmotreny sleduyushchie vozmushcheniya: magnitnoe pole, DM vzaimodeistvie cherez odnogo.

Theory seminar, Thursday, September 14, 2017, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Sam Carr (University of Kent, England)
Interaction induced topological phases in one dimension

We consider a one-dimensional single channel quantum wire with a spin gap but gapless charge excitations. We show that the spin gap can be generated in two different ways, one of which has non-trivial topological properties. This topology manifests itself in two ways - firstly in the existence of gapless single-particle edge states, and secondly in an insensitivity of the wire to weak impurities reminiscent of the helical edge states of two dimensional topological insulators. We will demonstrate a number of ways such a phase of matter can be engineered, including spin-orbit quantum wires or two coupled helical edge states. If time permits, we will also touch on recent work concerning strong impurities in such systems.

References: [1] Kairanis and Carr, PRB 92, 035139 (2015). [2] Santos, Gutman and Carr, PRB 93, 235436 (2016). [3] Kainaris, Santos, Gutman and Carr, Forschr. Phys. 1600054 (2017). [4] Kainaris, Carr and Mirlin, coming soon.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, June 23, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Ivan Protopopov
Transport in a disordered ν=2/3 fractional quantum Hall junction

Electric and thermal transport properties of a ν=2/3 fractional quantum Hall junction are analyzed. We investigate the evolution of the electric and thermal two-terminal conductances, G and G_Q, with system size L and temperature T. This is done both for the case of strong interaction between the 1 and 1/3 modes (when the low-temperature physics of the interacting segment of the device is controlled by the vicinity of the strong-disorder Kane-Fisher-Polchinski fixed point) and for relatively weak interaction, for which the disorder is irrelevant at T=0 in the renormalization-group sense. The transport properties in both cases are similar in several respects. In particular, G(L) is close to 4/3 (in units of e2/h) and G_Q to 2 (in units of πT/6?) for small L, independently of the interaction strength. For large L the system is in an incoherent regime, with G given by 2/3 and GQ showing the Ohmic scaling, G_Q\sim 1/L, again for any interaction strength. The hallmark of the strong-disorder fixed point is the emergence of an intermediate range of L, in which the electric conductance shows strong mesoscopic fluctuations and the thermal conductance is G_Q=1. The analysis is extended also to a device with floating 1/3 mode, as studied in a recent experiment [A. Grivnin et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 266803 (2014)].

Referativnyi seminar, Friday, June 16, 2017, ITF, 3:00 pm
Leon Ogorodnikov
Coherent quantum phase slip

Referativnyi doklad po rabote

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, June 9, 2017, ITF, 3:00 pm
V. V. Enaldiev (IRE RAS)
Resonance Absorption of Terahertz Radiation in Nanoperforated Graphene

Recent measurements of the conductivity of nanoperforated graphene are interpreted in terms of edges states existing near the edge of each nanohole. The perimetric quantization of edge states should result in the formation of a quasi-equidistant ladder of quasistationary energy levels. Dirac fermions filling this ladder rotate about each nanohole in the direction determined by the valley index. We show that the irradiation of this system by circularly polarized terahertz radiation leads to a resonance in absorption in one of the valleys. The magnitude of absorption at the resonance frequency can be controlled by means of gate voltage.

Referativnyi seminar, Friday, June 2, 2017, ITF, 3:00 pm
Daniil Antonenko
arXiv 1703.01304: Investigating anisotropic quantum Hall states with bi-metric geometry
Theory seminar, Thursday, May 25, 2017, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
K.E. Nagaev (IRE, teoriya), V.S. Khrapai (IFTT, eksperiment)
Vliyanie elektron-elektronnogo rasseyaniya na provodimost' mnogomodovykh ballisticheskikh kontaktov i kanalov

Privodyatsya teoreticheskie i eksperimental'nye rezul'taty po elektroprovodnosti shirokikh ballisticheskikh kontaktov v dvumernom elektronnom gaze pri nalichii elektron-elektronnogo rasseyaniya za predelami gidrodinamicheskogo priblizheniya. Obsuzhdayutsya lineinaya zavisimost' popravki k elektroprovodnosti ot temperatury i polozhitel'noe magnetosoprotivlenie v slabykh polyakh. Rassmatrivaetsya takzhe protivopolozhnyi sluchai dlinnogo kanala s gladkimi stenkami.

Seminar of Condensed-matter physics laboratory, HSE, Wednesday, May 24, 2017, MLFKS VShE, 3:00 pm
Ilya A. Gruzberg (Ohio State University)
Low-frequency conductivity of disordered wires: integrability and instantons

Generic states of non-interacting electrons in disordered wires are localized, and the DC conductivity of a wire vanishes at zero temperature. However, the AC conductivity is non-vanishing, and its general asymptotic form at low frequency was obtained by Mott who used intuitive qualitative arguments. Then this formula was rigorously derived by Berezinsky for a strictly one-dimensional (1D) disordered system. Later Hayn and John have re-derived the Mott-Berezinsky formula applying instanton techniques to localized states in the Lifshits tails (at large negative energies). We revisit the instanton approach and apply it to the statistics of wave functions and AC transport, calculating exactly the integral over gaussian fluctuations around the exact two-instanton solution. We demonstrate that quite generically the contribution of zero modes to the fluctuation determinant exactly cancels the Jacobian that appears when the collective variable are introduced. Thus, we derive the correlations between eigenfunctions at different energies beyond the leading order in small energy difference. This allows us to calculate the leading corrections to the Mott-Berezinsky law. We also extend this approach to quasi-1D wires.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, May 19, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Igor Lukyanchuk
Domains, switching and negative capacitance in nano-scale ferroelectrics

Formation of unusual textures of polarization is imminent for nano-scale ferroelectric samples, films, rods, and granules, where the depolarization surface effects play the crucial role. We consider the unconventional topological polarization textures in several nano-scale systems, in which they were either already directly observed or can be yet discovered. Polarization domains that alternate the surface charge distribution, first proposed by Landau (1935) in contents of ferromagnetism can be formed in ferroelectric thin films as an effective mechanism to confine the depolarization field to the near-surface layer and diminish the depolarization energy. Very recently we have demonstrated that the few-nanometer thick ferroelectric/paraelectric superlattices with periodic domain structures exhibit the striking feature. The effective capacitance of ferroelectric layers is negative. This effect is explained by the opposite orientation of the depolarizing field with respect to the field-induced averaged polarization. Moreover, in sub-THz region the real part of the dielectric constant becomes positive, passing through zero at frequency ~0.3-3THz, inducing the resonance effect, suitable for the design of the ultra-small low-energy THz chips. Multi-vortex and skyrmion states are formed inside ferroelectric cylindrical nano-dots and nanorods to reduce the depolarization energy. We study the stability of such states and calculate the phase diagram of the system. We demonstrate that the topological class of the most stable topological excitations can be driven by the geometrical and electrical parameters of the system, external field, and temperature. We target the multi-domain and topological excitations in FE nanodots as a platform for multivalued logic units, for neuromorphic computing.

Seminar of Condensed-matter physics laboratory, HSE, Thursday, May 18, 2017, MLFKS VShE, 11:30 am
Z.D.Kvon (Institut fiziki poluprovodnikov im. A.V.Rzhanova SO RAN)
Topologicheskie izolyatory na osnove HgTe

V doklade dan obzor eksperimental'nykh issledovanii dvumernykh i trekhmernykh topologicheskikh izolyatorov (TI) na osnove HgTe kvantovykh yam i plenok. On sostoit iz dvukh chastei: pervaya posvyashchena dvumernomu TI na osnove HgTe yam s inversnym spektrom, a vtoraya trekhmernomu TI na osnove napryazhennoi plenki HgTe. V pervoi chasti osoboe vnimanie udeleno opisaniyu eksperimentov, imeyushchikh klyuchevoe znachenie dlya detektirovaniya kraevykh tokovykh sostoyanii. Podrobno opisyvaetsya polevaya tranzistornaya struktura, pozvolyayushchaya upravlyat' polozheniem urovnya Fermi kak dvumernogo, tak i trekhmernogo topologicheskogo izolyatora. Privodyatsya naibolee interesnye eksperimental'nye rezul'taty, poluchennye s ee pomoshch'yu. Esli govorit' o svoistvakh dvumernogo TI, to k nim mozhno otnesti nablyudenie nelokal'nogo ballisticheskogo i diffuzionnogo transporta v dvumernykh TI, magnitnyi proboi dvumernogo TI i anomal'nuyu temperaturnuyu zavisimost' soprotivleniya kraevykh kanalov. Esli zhe govorit' o trekhmernom TI, to eto dostizhenie rekordno vysokoi podvizhnosti poverkhnostnykh dvumernykh dirakovskikh fermionov i opredelenie blagodarya etomu vsekh ego osnovnykh parametrov (ob'emnoi shcheli, kontsentratsii dirakovskikh fermionov na obeikh ego poverkhnostyakh), a takzhe poluchenie informatsii o faze shubnikovskikh ostsillyatsii, svidetel'stvuyushchei o zhestkoi svyazi ikh spina i impul'sa. V zaklyuchenie obsuzhdayutsya perspektivy novykh eksperimentov.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 28, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P.G. Grigor'ev
Anizotropiya elektronnykh transportnykh i sverkhprovodyashchikh svoistv v FeSe

Naideno i kolichestvenno opisano obshchee svoistvo: esli neodnorodnaya sverkhprovodimost' v anizotropnom provodnike poyavlyaetsya v vide izolirovannykh sverkhprovodyashchikh ostrovkov, ona umen'shaet elektricheskoe soprotivlenie anizotropno s maksimal'nym effektom vdol' osi s naimen'shei provodimost'yu. Eto svoistvo daet prostoi i ochen' obshchii instrument dlya izucheniya neodnorodnoi (ostrovkovoi) sverkhprovodimosti v razlichnykh anizotropnykh soedineniyakh i pozvolyaet otsenit' velichinu i temperaturnuyu zavisimost' ob'emnoi doli sverkhprovodyashchei fazy. Yavlenie nablyudaetsya v razlichnykh vysokotemperaturnykh sverkhprovodnikakh i v organicheskikh metallakh.

C pomoshch'yu opisannogo svoistva i izmerenii elektronnoi provodimosti i diamagnetizma vpervye pokazano poyavlenie neodnorodnoi sverkhprovodimosti v ob'emnom soedineniya FeSe pri atmosfernom davlenii i pri temperature v 5 raz vyshe, chem izvestnaya ranee temperatura sverkhprovodyashchego perekhoda Tc=8K, sootvetstvuyushchaya nulevomu soprotivleniyu. Eto otkrytie pomogaet ponyat' mnogochislennye neobychnye sverkhprovodyashchie svoistva FeSe, takie kak pyatikratnoe povyshenie Tc pri uvelichenii davleniya do neskol'kikh kilobar. Obsuzhdaetsya vozmozhnost' primeneniya etogo svoistva dlya obnaruzheniya prostranstvenno neodnorodnoi sverkhprovodimosti v drugikh anizotropnykh soedineniyakh, takikh kak kupraty i organicheskie metally.

Theory seminar, Thursday, April 27, 2017, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
L. Levitov (MIT)
Together we can: transport properties of electron viscous flows

Strongly interacting electrons can move in a neatly coordinated way, reminiscent of the movement of viscous fluids. In viscous electron flows interactions give rise to a collective behavior, facilitating transport and allowing conductance to exceed the fundamental Sharvin-Landauer ballistic limit Gball. This talk will describe a theory of the ballistic-to-viscous crossover in a constriction exhibiting the ballistic transport at T = 0 but governed by electron hydrodynamics at elevated temperatures. An approach based on quasi-hydrodynamic variables predicts an additive relation G = Gball + Gvis, where the viscous contribution Gvis dominates over Gball in the hydrodynamic limit. We will also discuss recent measurements of electron transport through graphene constrictions, finding that conductance below 150 K increases with increasing temperature. The measurements help to identify the conductance contribution arising due to electron viscosity and determine its temperature dependence. Besides fundamental interest, this work shows that viscous effects can facilitate high-mobility transport at elevated temperatures, a potentially useful behavior for designing graphene-based devices.

Seminar of Condensed-matter physics laboratory, HSE, Tuesday, April 4, 2017, MLFKS, 3:00 pm
Zheng Vitto Han (Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, China)
Two-dimensional artificial nano-hybrids and their quantum properties

When different materials are interfaced/jointed with each other, the resulted hybrid systems often manifest fascinating physical properties that do not exist in nature. Among the many artificial hybrids (sometimes addressed as meta-materials or hetero-structures), nano-hybrid made with low-dimensional materials and other functional materials is attracting tremendous attentions in recent years. In this talk, we will mainly go through a couple of examples of our recent progresses on the graphene/superconducting-islands, and the 2D materials/h-Boron-Nitride nano-hybrid systems. In the former, the superconducting behavior is successfully coupled to the gate-tunable feature of graphene, leading to a metal-superconducting quantum phase transition at the ground state. While in the later, ultra-flat and ultra-clean interface allow ballistic electronic transport, opening new path to realize the paradigm of electron optics. Our recent experimental progresses on MoS2/h-BN hetero-structures will also be discussed. We expect that artificial nano-hybrids and their quantum properties can be expanded into many research areas that are important for both fundamental studies and future applications.

Seminar of Condensed-matter physics laboratory, HSE, Tuesday, March 28, 2017, CMP Lab, 3:00 pm
Oded Agam (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel)
Instability of the Abrikosov Lattice due to Nonanalytic Core Reconstruction of Vortices in Bosonic Superfluids

The impact of the nonanalytic reconstruction of vortex cores on static vortex structures inweakly coupled superfluids is considered. It is shown that, in rotating two-dimensional systems, the Abrikosov vortex lattice is unstable to vortex core deformation: Each zero of the wave function becomes a cut of finite length. The directors characterizing the orientations of the cuts are themselves ordered in superstructures due either to surface effects or to interaction with shear deformations of the lattice (spiral structure). Similar instability may also be observable in clean superconducting films.

Seminar of Condensed-matter physics laboratory, HSE, Tuesday, March 21, 2017, MLFKS, 3:00 pm
D. Basko (CNRS, Grenoble)
Exciton-phonon scattering and radiative decay of excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

We study exciton radiative decay in a two-dimensional material, taking into account large thermal population in the nonradiative states, from which excitons are scattered into the radiative states by acoustic phonons. We find an analytical solution of the kinetic equation for the nonequilibrium distribution function of excitons in the radiative states. Our estimates for bright excitons in transition-metal dichalcogenides indicate a strong depletion of radiative state population due to insufficient exciton-phonon scattering rate at low temperatures.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, February 10, 2017, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
I.S Burmistrov
Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

Theory seminar, Thursday, January 12, 2017, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Kirill Shulga (Russian Quantum Center and MISiS)
Indutsirovannaya magnitnym polem prozrachnost' kvantovogo metamateriala, sostoyashchego iz zerkal'nykh potokovykh kubitov

V svoem doklade ya rasskazhu ob obnaruzhennom nami effekte, voznikayushchem v kvantovom sverkhprovodyashchem metamateriale v predele sil'noi svyazi. Metamaterial sostoit iz tsepochki meta-atomov (kubitov), kazhdyi iz kotorykh soderzhit dva sverkhprovodyashchikh kol'tsa, soedinennykh tunnel'nym perekhodom. Elektromagnitnye svoistva takogo materiala mogut byt' opisany kvantovoi induktivnost'yu kazhdogo atoma, kotoroi mozhno upravlyat' v shirokom chastotnom diapazone pri pomoshchi izmeneniya vneshnego magnitnogo polya. Rezkoe podavlenie prokhozhdeniya mikrovolnovogo izlucheniya cherez takoi metamaterial chereduetsya s ego rezonansnym usileniem, voznikayushchim iz-za rasshchepleniya mezhdu vyrozhdennymi potokovymi sostoyaniyami. Osnovnoe sostoyanie sistemy mozhet byt' pereklyucheno v sostoyanie superpozitsii dvukh potokovykh sostoyanii, prilozheniem k obraztsu magnitnogo polya opredelennoi velichiny. Budet predstavleno neskol'ko kvantovykh modelei povedeniya takoi sistemy, kotorye mogut opisat' poluchennye eksperimental'nye dannye.

Theory seminar, Thursday, December 29, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
V.E. Kravtsov (Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste)
Replica approach with one step replica symmetry breaking in the problem of Anderson localization on the Bethe lattice

We formulate general criteria for localized, extended ergodic and extended non-ergodic (multifractal) phases in disordered quantum systems and apply these criteria to the problem of Anderson localization on Bethe lattice, random regular graphs and generalized Rosenzweig-Porter random matrix ensemble. We focus on the replica symmetry breaking approach to the problem and show how this approach provides a natural classification of phases and phase transitions.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 23, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
N.M. Shchelkachev
Vzaimovliyanie kulonovskoi blokady, ferroelektrichestva i elektronnogo transporta v mezoskopicheskikh nanostrukturakh

We investigate the interplay of ferroelectricity and quantum electron transport at the nanoscale in the regime of Coulomb blockade. Ferroelectric polarization in this case is no longer the external parameter but should be self-consistently calculated along with electron hopping probabilities leading to new physical transport phenomena.

Theory seminar, Thursday, December 15, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Pavel Aseev (University of Basel)
Finite-temperature conductance of strongly interacting quantum wire with a helical nuclear spin order

We study the temperature dependence of the electrical conductance of a clean strongly interacting quantum wire in the presence of a helical nuclear spin order. The nuclear spin helix opens a temperature-dependent partial gap in the electron spectrum. Using a bosonization framework we describe the gapped electron modes by sine-Gordon-like kinks. We predict an internal resistivity caused by an Ohmic-like friction these kinks experience via interacting with gapless excitations. As a result, the conductance rises from G=e^2/h at temperatures below the critical temperature when nuclear spins are fully polarized to G=2e^2/h at higher temperatures when the order is destroyed, featuring a relatively wide plateau in the intermediate regime. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data for GaAs quantum wires obtained recently by Scheller et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066801 (2014)]. (arXiv:1611.10238)

Theory seminar, Thursday, December 8, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Yan Fyodorov (King's College London)
O podschete chisla tochek ravnovesiya v neuporyadochennykh sistemakh

Ya planiruyu obsudit' kratko dve raboty, svyazannye obshchei ideologiei o podschete chisla tochek ravnovesiya v neuporyadochennykh sistemakh. V pervoi chasti, sleduya rabote ArXiv:1610.04831, ya opishu, kak takaya zadacha reshaetsya dlya nerelaksatsionnoi dinamiki v modeli tipa spinovogo stekla na sfere bol'shoi razmernosti, i obsuzhu fazovyi perekhod v rezhim eksponentsial'no bol'shogo chisla tochek ravnovesiya. Vo vtoroi chasti (osnovannoi na eshche ne zavershennoi rabote s P. Le Doussal i C. Texier) ya kratko obrisuyu podschet chisla tochek ravnovesiya dlya napravlennogo polimera v sluchainom potentsiale, gde zadacha svoditsya k izucheniyu fluktuatsii pokazatelya Lyapunova v odnomernoi lokalizatsii v rezhime lifshitsevskogo khvosta.

Theory seminar, Thursday, December 1, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
S.V. Zaitsev-Zotov (Kotel’nikov IRE RAS, Moscow)
Experimental search for one-dimensional edge states at surface steps of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

Results of detailed study of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 surface state energy structure in the vicinity of surface steps by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) methods are described. Increase of the chemical potential in the vicinity of the step edge is observed. The value of the increase is found to correlate with the step height and is caused by redistribution of electron wave functions between outer and inner edges of surface steps, as it is known for usual metals, as well as by presence of dangling bonds on the step. Smaller value of the shift and its larger characteristic length reflect specifics of the helical surface states. This increase is accompanied by enhancement of the relative value of the differential tunneling conductance, dI/dV, at the Dirac point and thereby produces an illusion of appearance of edge states. We show that the enhancement is reproduced in the framework of the tunneling model, which takes into account the dependence of the tunneling gap transparency on the voltage. References: [1] N.I. Fedotov, S.V. Zaitsev-Zotov, JETP Letters, 104, #11 (2016) (in press); arXiv:1609.08294. [2] N.I. Fedotov, S.V. Zaitsev-Zotov, arXiv:1609.08911.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, November 25, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Oleg Tretiakov (Tohoku University, Japan)
Skyrmion Dynamics in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets

Manipulating small spin textures that can serve as bits of information by electric and spin currents is one of the main challenges in the field of spintronics. Ferromagnetic skyrmions recently attracted a lot of attention because they are small in size and are better than domain walls at avoiding pinning sites while moved by electric current. Nevertheless, ferromagnetic skyrmions also have certain disadvantages, such as the presence of stray fields and transverse dynamics, making them harder to employ in spintronic devices. To avoid these unwanted effects, we propose a novel topological object: the antiferromagnetic (AFM) skyrmion and explore its properties using analytical theory based on generalized Thiele equation and micromagnetic simulations. This topological texture has no stray fields and we show that its dynamics are faster compared to its ferromagnetic analogue. We obtain the range of stability and the dependence of AFM skyrmion radius on the strength of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction coming from relativistic spin-orbit effects. Moreover, we study the temperature effects on the stability and mobility of AFM skyrmions. We find that the thermal properties, e.g. such as the antiferromagnetic skyrmion radius and diffusion constant, are rather different from those for ferromagnetic skyrmions. More importantly, we show that due to unusual topology the AFM skyrmions do not have a velocity component transverse to the current (no topological Hall effect), and thus may be interesting candidates for spintronic memory and logic applications.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 14, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Burmistrov I.S.
Two-instanton approximation to the Coulomb blockade problem

We develop the two-instanton approximation to the current-voltage characteristic of a single electron transistor within the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Sch\"on model. We determine the temperature and gate voltage dependence of the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the conductance and the effective charge. We find that a small (in comparison with the charging energy) bias voltage leads to significant suppression of the Coulomb blockade oscillations and to appearance of the bias-dependent phase shift.

Theory seminar, Thursday, October 13, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
S.A. Tarasenko (FTI im. A.F. Ioffe RAN, Sankt-Peterburg)
Drozhanie elektronov i spin-gal'vanicheskii effekt v poluprovodnikakh

Pokazano, chto elektrony provodimosti v poluprovodnikovykh strukturakh so spin-orbital'nym vzaimodeistviem vo vneshnem magnitnom pole ispytyvayut drozhanie. Drozhashchee dvizhenie (Zitterbewegung) voznikaet v otsutstvie peremennoi sily, ego priroda analogichna prirode Zitterbewegung svobodnykh dirakovskikh elektronov. V doklade obsuzhdayutsya rezul'taty pervogo eksperimental'nogo i teoreticheskogo issledovaniya kogerentnogo drozhaniya elektronov, indutsirovannogo opticheskoi orientatsiei ansamblya elektronov v odinakovoe spinovoe sostoyanie.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 30, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Burmistrov I.S.
Mesoscopic fluctuations of the single-particle Green's function at Anderson transitions with Coulomb interaction

Using the two-loop analysis and the background field method we demonstrate that the local pure scaling operators without derivatives in the Finkel'stein nonlinear sigma model can be constructed by straightforward generalization of the corresponding operators for the noninteracting case. These pure scaling operators demonstrate multifractal behavior and describe mesoscopic fluctuations of the single-particle Green's function. We determine anomalous dimensions of all such pure scaling operators in the interacting theory within the two-loop approximation.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 23, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Gordei Lesovik

V doklade budet rasskazano o rezul'tatakh, poluchennykh v nedavnikh rabotakh: 1) N-teorema v kvantovoi fizike [G.B. Lesovik, A.V. Lebedev, I.A. Sadovskyy, M.V. Suslov, V.M. Vinokur, H-theorem in quantum physics, Sci. Rep. (Nature Publishing Group) 6, 32815 (2016)]. 2)Trading coherence and entropy by a quantum Maxwell demon [A. V. Lebedev, D. Oehri, G. B. Lesovik, G. Blatter (PRA 2016)]. 3) Phase Estimation Algorithms for Quantum Metrology with a Single Qubit [S. Danilin, A. Vepsalainen, A. V. Lebedev, G. B. Lesovik, G. Blatter, G. S. Paraoanu, in preparation)].

Theory seminar, Thursday, September 22, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Moshe Goldstein (Tel-Aviv University)
Dissipation-induced topological insulators: A recipe

It has recently been realized that driven-dissipative dynamics, which usually tends to destroy subtle quantum interference and correlation effects, could actually be used as a resource. By proper engineering of the reservoirs and their couplings, one may drive a system towards a desired quantum-correlated steady state, even in the absence of internal Hamiltonian dynamics. An intriguing class of quantum phases is characterized by topology, including the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators and superconductors. Which of these noninteracting topological states can be achieved as the result of purely dissipative Lindblad-type dynamics? Recent studies have only provided partial answers to this question. In this talk, I will present a general recipe for the creation, classification, and detection of states of the integer quantum Hall and 2D topological insulator type as the outcomes of coupling a system to reservoirs, and show how the recipe can be realized with ultracold atoms and other quantum simulators. The mixed states so created can be made arbitrarily close to pure states, and the construction may be generalized to other topological phases.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 16, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Yuval Gefen (Weizmann Institute of Science)
Physics at the Edge: A New Paradigm for Shot Noise

Questions on the nature of edge reconstruction and ‘where does the current flow’ in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) have been debated for years. Moreover, the recent observation of proliferation of ‘upstream’ neutral modes in the fractional QHE raised doubts about the present models of edge channels. I will focus on the hole-conjugate state \nu=2/3 , and present a new picture of edge reconstruction. For example, while the hitherto accepted model for \nu=2/3 consists of a single downstream charge channel with conductance 2/3 and an upstream neutral mode, it has been recently predicted theoretically and found experimentally that the current is carried by two separate downstream edge channels, each with conductance 1/3 accompanied by upstream neutral mode(s). We find that if the two downstream channels are not equilibrated, inter-mode equilibration (via particle exchange) is accompanied by an excitation of upstream neutral modes. In turn, the counter-propagating neutral modes, moving in close proximity to the charge modes, fragment into propagating charges, inducing thus downstream current fluctuations with zero net current – a novel mechanism for non-equilibrium noise. The latter is shot noise with quantized Fano factors, which does not involve beam partitioning.

Theory seminar, Thursday, September 15, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Anton Andreev (University of Washington, Seattle,USA)
Spiraling energy dispersion of arc states in Weyl semimetals

Weyl semimetals are recently discovered materials in which the valence and conduction bands touch at isolated points (Weyl nodes) in the Brillouin zone. This gives rise to unusual electronic properties of these materials. In particular, Weyl semimetals host peculiar surface electron states whose Fermi lines are shaped as open arcs. I will show that static electric fields that are necessarily present near the crystal surface result in a spiraling structure of Fermi arcs. The winding angle of the spiral is controlled by the chirality of the Weyl node and the magnitude of the surface potential. I will also discuss magnetoresistance of a pn-junction in a Weyl semimetal.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 9, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Dimitri M. Gangardt (University of Birmingham)
Dynamic correlations in 1D superfluids: the particle-wave duality

While phonons are routinely used to describe low-energy properties of quantum superfluids, repulsive bosons in one dimension are special: their low energy excitations allow for an alternative decription in terms of fermionic quasiparticles. In my talk I will present the quasiclassical theory of these excitations which allows calculation of the dynamical structure factor in a generic 1D Bose liquid. In this theory the main role is played by singular kink-like configurations of the bosonic field. I will demonstrate that it is the kinetics of these quasiparticles rather than hydrodynamics which provides an effective description of dynamics of 1D interacting bosons.

Theory seminar, Thursday, June 9, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Ya.M. Bel'tyukov (FTI im. A.F. Ioffe RAN, Sankt-Peterburg)
Random matrix approach to the jamming transition

Amorphous materials as diverse as foams, emulsions, colloidal suspensions and granular media can jam into a solid-like disordered state. In this state each particle has a certain equilibrium position and can vibrate around it.

In this talk, I will show that the dynamical matrix M describing harmonic oscillations in such media can be represented in the form M = AAT. The rows of the matrix A correspond to the degrees of freedom of individual granules and its columns correspond to elastic contacts between granules. This representation allows to apply the random matrix theory and estimate the vibrational density of states. The resulting vibrational density of states is approximately constant over a wide frequency range which is determined mostly by the ratio of the number of degrees of freedom and the total number of elastic contacts in the system. The results are in a good agreement with numerical experiments performed by various authors.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, June 3, 2016, ITF, 4:00 pm
A. P. Dmitriev (FTI im. A. F. Ioffe)
Elektron v pole izgibnykh kolebanii membrany: kvantovoe vremya, magneto-ostsillyatsii i razrushenie kogerentnosti

Izucheno dvizhenie elektrona v membrane pod vliyaniem ravnovesnykh izgibnykh kolebanii, korrelyator kotorykh ubyvaet s rasstoyaniem po zakonu r^{-2\eta}. Podrobno rassmotren sluchai \eta<1/2, kogda dazhe pri skol' ugodno slabom vzaimodeistvii teoriya vozmushchenii neprimenima. Pokazano, chto v etom sluchae obratnoe kvantovoe vremya proportsional'no g^{1/(1-\eta)} T^{(2-\eta)/(2-2\eta)}, gde g - konstanta elektron-fononnogo vzaimodeistviya, a T - temperatura. Razvityi metod prilozhen k vychisleniyu plotnosti sostoyanii elektrona v perpendikulyarnom k membrane magnitnom pole. Pokazano, v chastnosti, chto v rezhime slaboushirennykh besporyadkom urovnei Landau oni imeyut gaussovu formu s shirinoi, zavisyashchei ot magnitnogo polya po zakonu B^\eta. Krome togo, vychisleno vremya sboya fazy volnovoi funktsii elektrona za schet ego vzaimodeistviya s izgibnymi fononami v sluchae \eta<1/2. Pokazano, chto imeetsya neskol'ko temperaturnykh intervalov, v kotorykh vremya sboya fazy vyrazhaetsya razlichnymi stepennymi funktsiyami ot konstanty elektron-fononnogo vzaimodeistviya, temperatury i energii elektrona.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, June 3, 2016, ITF, 2:30 pm
A. V. Semenov (MGPU)
Coherent excited states in superconductors due to a microwave field

We describe theoretically the depairing effect of a microwave field on diffusive s-wave superconductors. The ground state of the superconductor is altered qualitatively in analogy to the depairing due to a dc current. In contrast to dc-depairing the density of states acquires, for microwaves with frequency \omega_0, steps at multiples of the photon energy \Delta \pm n\hbar\omega_0 and shows an exponential-like tail in the subgap regime. We show that this ac-depairing explains the measured frequency shift of a superconducting resonator at high microwave power and low temperatures.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, June 3, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
A. Shtyk, G. Goldstein, K. Shamon
Elektrony na obez'yan'em sedle: chetvernaya tochka Lifshitsa

My rassmatrivaem 2D vzaimodeistvuyushchie elektrony s dispersiei tipa "obez'yan'e sedlo" (OS), $\propto p_x^3-3p_xp_y^2$. Podobnaya dispersiya estestvenno voznikaet pri sliyanii trekh obychnykh sedel (osobennostei van Khova) v elementarnoi katastrofe tipa ellipticheskoi ombiliki. My pokazyvaem, chto takaya dispersiya voznikaet v dvukhsloinom grafene v poperechnom elektricheskom pole, prichem s tochki zreniya topologii poverkhnosti Fermi podobnaya singulyarnost' yavlyaetsya chetvernoi tochkoi Lifshitsa. Tochka Lifshitsa etogo tipa obladaet kharakternym povedeniem urovnei Landau $E_m\propto (Bm)^{3/2}$ i svyazannykh ostsillyatsii v termodinamicheskikh i transportnykh svoistvakh, takikh kak ostsillyatsii de-Gaaza-van-Al'fena i Shubnikova-de-Gaaza, chei period utraivaetsya pri peresechenii singulyarnosti. My demonstriruem, chto dlya izolirovannogo OS teoriya, opisyvayushchaya nevzaimodeistvuyushchie elektrony, neustoichiva po otnosheniyu k renormgruppovomu potoku, i v sisteme libo voznikaet sverkhprovodyashchaya neustoichivost', libo ne-Fermi-zhidkostnoe povedenie. V dvukhsloinom grafene, v kotorom imeetsya dva OS okolo $K$ i $K^\prime$ tochek, voznikaet konkurentsiya neustoichivostei, a imenno ferromagnetizma, voln spinovoi i zaryadovoi plotnostei, i nematichnosti.

Theory seminar, Thursday, June 2, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
A.V. Rozhkov (MFTI; ITPE RAN; VNIIA im. Dukhova)
Majorana fermion from Landau quantization in 2D topological superconductors

We study the generation of Majorana fermions in a two-dimensional topological superconductor placed in a transverse magnetic field B. A topological insulator/superconductor heterostructure and a two-dimensional p-wave superconductor are discussed. It is demonstrated that in these systems a single vortex creates two Majorana fermions, one hosted at the vortex core. The wave function of the second Majorana state is localized in the superconductor volume along a circle of radius rB−1 centered at the vortex core. In the case of many vortices, the sensitivity of r to the magnetic field B may be used to control the coupling between the Majorana fermions. The latter property could be an asset for quantum computations.

Theory seminar, Thursday, May 12, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Pavel Frantsuzov (Novosibirsk)
Dolgovremennye fluktuatsii izlucheniya nanorazmernykh chastits

Odinochnye nanorazmernye chastitsy, takie kak kolloidnye poluprovodnikovye nanokristally, nanosterzhni (nanorods), nanoprovoloki (nanowires) demonstriruyut fluktuatsii intensivnosti fluorestsentsii (mertsanie) na shirochaishem spektre vremennykh masshtabov, ot dolei millisekund do chasov. V doklade budut obsuzhdat'sya sushchestvuyushchie teoreticheskie mekhanizmy i modeli mertsaniya nanochastits, vklyuchaya model' Efrosa/Rozena [Al.L. Efros & M. Rosen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1110 (1997)] i Multiple recombination center model [P.A. Frantsuzov, S. Volkan-Kacso & B. Janko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 207402 (2009)].

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 22, 2016, ITF, 3:00 pm
D. M. Basko (CNRS, Grenoble)
O roli effekta Landau-Zinera v rabote kvantovogo turniketa

Kvantovyi turniket predstavlyaet soboi nanoelektronnoe ustroistvo, kontroliruemym obrazom perenosyashchee elektrony po odnomu mezhdu dvumya sverkhprovodyashchimi elektrodami putem podachi peremennogo napryazheniya na metallicheskuyu nanochastitsu, raspolozhennuyu mezhdu dvumya elektrodami. Okazyvaetsya, chto kogerentnaya svyaz' mezhdu elektronnymi sostoyaniyami v nanochastitse i kvazichastichnymi sostoyaniyami v sverkhprovodnikakh nakladyvaet fundamental'nye ogranicheniya na rabotu ustroistva.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 22, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Teun Klapwijk (TU Delft)
Josephson-effect in 3DTI and 2DTI based on HgCdTe heterostructures

I will report on experimental results obtained at Molenkamp’s group in Würzburg on ‘missing odd’ Shapiro steps and on emission of Josephson radiation. It is known that as a consequence of the Josephson equations, a strong relation exists between the voltage V measured across a Josephson junction and the characteristic frequency fJ =2eV/h of the current flowing in it. By applying microwave radiation steps occur at integer values of the voltage. Alternatively, ’listening’ to the rf signal radiated by the circulating supercurrent is a passive way of probing its properties. The data provide compelling evidence for the presence of a substantial 4\pi Josephson-current as would be expected from zero-enegry states. The results are available on the arxiv at: arXiv:1603.09611, arXiv:1601.08055, arXiv:1503.05591

Work done by: J.Wiedenmann, E.Bocquillon, R. Deacon, T.M.Klapwijk and various co-authors.
The research is supported by a 2014 Alexander von Humboldt prize.

Theory seminar, Thursday, April 21, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
D. Basko (LPMMC, CNRS, Grenoble, France)
Protsessy perevorota spina i radiatsionnoe zatukhanie temnykh eksitonov v dikhalkogenidakh perekhodnykh metallov

Dvumernye monosloi soedinenii MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 yavlyayutsya pryamoshchelevymi poluprovodnikami s opticheskoi (eksitonnoi) shchel'yu v vidimom diapazone. Shchel' nakhoditsya v dvukh elektronnykh dolinakh, svyazannykh simmetriei obrashcheniya vremeni. Iz-za sil'nogo spin-orbital'nogo vzaimodeistviya zony rasshchepleny po spinu. Znaki rasshchepleniya v raznykh dolinakh protivopolozhny. Iz 16 vozmozhnykh eksitonnykh sostoyanii s raznymi kombinatsiyami spinovykh i dolinnykh indeksov elektrona i dyrki, tol'ko 4 mogut annigilirovat' bez perevorota spina i/ili doliny. Ostal'nye sostoyaniya nazyvayutsya temnymi. V dannoi rabote rassmatrivayutsya temnye eksitony, raspad kotorykh razreshen po doline, no zapreshchen po spinu.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 15, 2016, ITF, 3:00 pm
M. V. Feigel'man
Quantum tunneling vs. thermal effects in experiments on adiabatic quantum computing

Referativnyi doklad po rabote D. M. Silevitch, T. F. Rosenbaum and G. Aeppli, Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 224, 25 (2015)

Traditional simulated annealing uses thermal fluctuations for convergence in optimization problems. Quantum tunneling provides a different mechanism for moving between states, with the potential for reduced time scales and different outcomes. Thermal and quan- tum annealing are compared in two concentration regimes of a model disordered magnet, where the effects of quantum mechanics can be tuned both by varying an applied magnetic field and by controlling the strength of thermal coupling between the magnet and an external heat bath. The results indicate that quantum annealing hastens convergence to the final state, and that the quantum character of the final state can be engineered thermodynamically.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 15, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Suslov M.V.
Doklad po kandidatskoi dissertatsii (ruk. Lesovik G.B.)

Polnaya statistika perenosa kvantovykh chastits, kvantovaya metrologiya i sozdanie zaputannykh sostoyanii" V dissertatsii s pomoshch'yu formalizma pervichnogo kvantovaniya avtorom polucheny novye vyrazheniya dlya kharakteristicheskoi funktsii polnoi statistiki perenosa, uchityvayushchie energeticheskuyu zavisimost', zavisimost' ot vremeni, a takzhe obmennye effekty, obuslovlennye konechnym perekrytiem volnovykh paketov. V sluchae rasseyaniya dvukh fermionov poluchena subbinominal'naya statistika dlya nezaputannykh vkhodyashchikh sostoyanii, v to vremya kak zaputannye sostoyaniya mogut porozhdat' superbinominal'nyi shum. Opisan sluchai s postoyannym napryazheniem, gde uchityvaetsya zavisimost' rasseyaniya ot energii i konechnykh vremen izmereniya. Predlozhena skhema, soderzhashchaya uslovnye izmereniya, v kotoroi neskol'ko kubitov sluzhat detektorom v zadache o polnoi statistike perenosa. Sformulirovana i reshena zadacha scheta v terminakh problemy razlichimosti kvantovykh sostoyanii pri odnokratnom izmerenii, dayushchaya konstruktivnuyu skhemu pribora dlya kvantovogo algoritma scheta. Issledovany razlichnye vozmozhnosti pribornoi realizatsii etogo algoritma. Rassmotreny vozmozhnosti sozdaniya zaputannykh sostoyanii putem chastichnogo opredeleniya chisla proshedshikh chastits. Predlozhen novyi sposob izmereniya napryazheniya pri pomoshchi odnogo ili neskol'kikh zaryadovykh kubitov.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 15, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Lesovik G.B.
Kommentarii o razvitii tematiki dissertatsii.
Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 8, 2016, ITF, 3:00 pm
K. S. Tikhonov
What is the computational value of finite range tunneling?

Referativnyi doklad po rabote V. S. Denchev et al (Google Inc.),

Quantum annealing (QA) has been proposed as a quantum enhanced optimization heuristic exploiting tunneling. Here, we demonstrate how finite range tunneling can provide considerable computational advantage. For a crafted problem designed to have tall and narrow energy barriers separating local minima, the D-Wave 2X quantum annealer achieves significant runtime advantages relative to Simulated Annealing (SA). For instances with 945 variables, this results in a time-to-99%-success-probability that is ∼108 times faster than SA running on a single processor core. We also compared physical QA with Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), an algorithm that emulates quantum tunneling on classical processors. We observe a substantial constant overhead against physical QA: D-Wave 2X again runs up to ∼108 times faster than an optimized implementation of QMC on a single core. We note that there exist heuristic classical algorithms that can solve most instances of Chimera structured problems in a timescale comparable to the D-Wave 2X. However, we believe that such solvers will become ineffective for the next generation of annealers currently being designed. To investigate whether finite range tunneling will also confer an advantage for problems of practical interest, we conduct numerical studies on binary optimization problems that cannot yet be represented on quantum hardware. For random instances of the number partitioning problem, we find numerically that QMC, as well as other algorithms designed to simulate QA, scale better than SA. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of next generation quantum annealers.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 8, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Dmitry Bagrets (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, Germany)
Low-energy field theory of disordered Weyl metals.

In my talk I discuss the transport properties of disordered Weyl semimetals. In these systems, mechanisms of topological origin lead to the protection against Anderson localization, and at the same time to different types of transverse electromagnetic response -- the anomalous Hall effect (AQHE), and chiral magnetic effect (CME). I will demonstrate how an interplay of symmetry breaking and the chiral anomaly leads to the low-energy field theory containing two types of topological terms --- the Pruisken term describing AQHE and a variant of the non-Abelian Chern-Simons term responsible for CME. I will then discuss the signatures of CME in the magnetoconductance and shot noise assuming a quasi-one-dimensional geometry with a disordered Weyl semimetal nanowire being placed in the contact with two normal leads. An application of the magnetic field B along the nanowire creates the chiral 1d channels propagating parallel to B. They survive disorder averaging and the amount of them equals to the number of flux quanta piercing the nanowire. As the result, the magnetoconductance shows the crossover from quadratic to linear in B behavior while the Fano factor F is exponentially suppressed at high B as compared to F=1/3 at low B.
References: Dmitry Bagrets and Alexander Altland, PRL 114, 257201 (2015); PRB 93, 075113 (2016)

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, April 7, 2016, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Nikolaos Lazaridis (Crete University, Greece)
Quantum coherence in a qubit chain induced by self-induced transparent electromagnetic pulses

Superconducting quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes since they satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers. Here it is shown that quantum coherence, in the form of population inversion pulses, is induced by self-induced transparent pulses propagating in a quantum metamaterial comprising superconducting charge qubits. The experimental confirmation of that effect may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, March 25, 2016, ITF, 3:00 pm
Lara Faoro (U Paris 6 & 7)
Out-of-time-order correlators in solid state physics

Out-of-time-order correlators introduced recently in the context of quantum gravity describe the delocalization of information in quantum systems. In classical chaotic systems, these correlators are known to grow exponentially with the Lyupanov exponent. I discuss the behavior of these correlators in canonical examples of solid state quantum chaotic systems: disordered electrons with and without phonon interaction.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, March 11, 2016, ITF, 3:00 pm
D. Shapiro, A. Shnirman and A. Mirlin
Current-phase relation and h/e-periodic critical current of a chiral Josephson contact between 1D Majorana modes

We explore a long Josephson contact transporting Cooper pairs between 1D charge-neutral chiral Majorana modes in the leads via charged Dirac chiral modes in the normal region. We investigate the regimes of transparent and tunnel junctions implemented in 3D topological insulator/superconductor/magnet hybrid structures. The setup acts as a SQUID controlled by the magnetic flux enclosed by the chiral loop of the normal region. This chirality leads to the fractional h/e-periodic pattern of critical current. The current-phase relation can have sawtooth-like shape with spikes at unusual even phases of 2\pi n.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 4, 2016, Landau Institute, 3:00 pm
Alessandro Silva (SISSA, Trieste)
Dynamical phase transitions and statistics of excitations

Dynamical phase transitions can occur in isolated quantum systems that are brought out of equilibrium by either a sudden or a gradual change of their parameters. Theoretical examples rage from the behaviour of the O(N) model in the large N limit as well as spin-model with long range interactions, both showing dynamical criticality in their prethermal steady-states. In this talk I will start by discussing the characterization of such dynamical phase transitions based on the statistics of produced excitations. I will focus both on the role of fluctuations as well as on the difference between sudden and gradual changes of the parameters. Finally, I will discuss a second type type of dynamical criticality discussed in the literature, related to the emergence of zeroes in the Loschmidt amplitude, and show that this phenomenon is much less generic and robust than standard dynamical criticality.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 4, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
V.Yu. Kachorovskii (FTI im. A.F. Ioffe RAN), I.V. Gornyi, A.D. Mirlin
Anomal'nye uprugie svoistva dvumernykh neuporyadochennykh kristallov: primenenie k grafenu

Grafen predstavlyaet soboi znamenityi primer dvumernoi kristallicheskoi membrany. Teplovye fluktuatsii membrany stremyatsya razrushit' dal'nii poryadok v sisteme. Konkuriruyushchim effektom, blagodarya kotoromu membrana ostaetsya termodinamicheski stabil'noi, yavlyaetsya sil'noe angarmonicheskoe vzaimodeistvie mezhdu izgibnymi i prodol'nymi kolebatel'nymi modami. Angarmonicheskie effekty demonstriruyut kriticheskoe povedenie na masshtabakh bol'shikh, chem dlina Ginzburga. V chastnosti, izgibnaya zhestkost' chistoi izolirovannoi membrany vozrastaet stepennym obrazom po mere uvelicheniya razmera sistemy: $\varkappa \propto L^{\eta}.$ V rabote izuchaetsya vliyanie besporyadka na kriticheskoe povedenie membrany. Pokazano, chto sluchainye fluktuatsii krivizny membrany, vyzvannye staticheskim besporyadkom, radikal'no menyayut kharakter skeilinga izgibnoi zhestkosti. Vyvedeny uravneniya renormgruppy (RG), opisyvayushchie izmenenie $\varkappa$ i effektivnoi sily besporyadka $b$ po mere uvelicheniya razmera sistemy. Pokazano, chto obe velichiny nemonotonno zavisyat ot $L.$ Analiz uravnenii RG pozvolyaet postroit' kriticheskuyu krivuyu $b(\varkappa),$ razdelyayushchuyu ploskuyu i «skomkannuyu» (crumpled) fazy membrany. Geometriya membrany v okrestnosti kriticheskoi krivoi kharakterizuetsya (v opredelennom intervale masshtabov) fraktal'noi razmernost'yu. Takzhe podrobno izucheno povedenie $\varkappa$ i $b$ v ploskoi faze. Pokazano, chto gluboko v ploskoi faze besporyadok ubyvaet stepennym obrazom na masshtabakh bol'shikh, chem dlina Ginzburga, kotoraya, takim obrazom, zadaet kharakternyi masshtab ripplov (ripples) – staticheskikh izgibnykh deformatsii, eksperimental'no nablyudaemykh v izolirovannom grafene. V predele $L \to \infty $ ripply kharakterizuyutsya anomal'noi eksponentoi $2\eta$ po kontrastu s dinamicheskimi fluktuatsiyami, kotorye spadayut stepennym obrazom s pokazatelem $\eta$. Esli nachal'nyi besporyadok dostatochno velik, to sushchestvuet promezhutochnyi interval masshtabov, gde ripply ubyvayut sushchestvenno medlennee, s pokazatelem $\eta/4.$. Rezul'taty raschetov sravnivayutsya s imeyushchimisya eksperimental'nymi izmereniya parametrov ripplov v grafene. V rabote takzhe izuchaetsya povedenie membrany pod deistviem vneshnego natyazheniya. Pokazano, chto lineinyi zakon Guka narushaetsya, a imenno rastyazhenie lista grafena okazyvaetsya nelineinoi funktsiei prilozhennogo malogo natyazheniya: $\Delta L \propto \sigma^{\eta/(2-\eta)}$ i $\Delta L \propto \sigma^{\eta/(8-\eta)},$ sootvetstvenno, dlya chistoi i razuporyadochennoi membrany.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, February 26, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Ya.V. Fominov, M.A. Skvortsov
Podshchelevye sostoyaniya v neuporyadochennykh sverkhprovodnikakh s sil'nymi magnitnymi primesyami

Issledovana plotnost' sostoyanii v diffuznykh sverkhprovodnikakh s magnitnymi primesyami, podchinyayushchimisya statistike Puassona. Takim obrazom mogut byt' opisany primesi proizvol'noi «sily», a izvestnyi sluchai bornovskikh magnitnykh primesei s gaussovoi statistikoi yavlyaetsya predel'nym sluchaem nashego rassmotreniya. Teoriya srednego polya predskazyvaet netrivial'nuyu strukturu plotnosti sostoyanii, soderzhashchuyu kontinuum kvazichastichnykh sostoyanii, a takzhe (v nekotorom diapazone parametrov) primesnuyu zonu. V priblizhenii srednego polya vse kraya spektra yavlyayutsya zhestkimi i oboznachayut chetkie granitsy mezhdu oblastyami konechnoi i nulevoi plotnosti sostoyanii. Rassmatrivaya instantony v tekhnike replichnoi sigma-modeli, my vychislyaem srednyuyu plotnost' sostoyanii za ramkami srednepolevogo priblizheniya. Takim obrazom, my nakhodim podshchelevye sostoyaniya («khvosty»), kotorye razmyvayut kraya spektra za schet fluktuatsii potentsial'nogo (obychnye primesi) i nepotentsial'nogo (magnitnye primesi) besporyadka. Neodnorodnost' kontsentratsii magnitnykh primesei privodit k poyavleniyu podshchelevykh sostoyanii za schet dvukh mekhanizmov: fluktuatsii para-razrushayushchego parametra (magnitnyi analog mezoskopicheskikh fluktuatsii) i fluktuatsii parametra poryadka (opredelyaemogo samosoglasovanno). V predel'nykh sluchayakh vosproizvodyatsya ranee poluchennye rezul'taty dlya podshchelevoi plotnosti sostoyanii v gryaznykh sverkhprovodnikakh s magnitnymi primesyami.

Theory seminar, Thursday, February 4, 2016, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Serguei Brazovskii
Electronic phase transitions induced by electric or optical impacts

Controlled transformations of electronic states or even of whole phases are achievable today by impacts of very strong electric fields and/or the ultrafast optical pumping. The experimental success is coming from ferroelectrically and ionically enhanced field effect in high-Tc superconductors, induced metallization in oxides of transition metals and in organic materials, field-effect superconductivity in MBE monolayers. The techniques of the femto-second optical pumping span from the purely optical setups to the newer time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and to the latest time-sliced diffraction. The tested electronic phases include: superconductivity, charge density waves, charge ordering, ferroelectricity, magnetic phases, Peierls and Mott insulators. A super goal is to attend “hidden” states which are inaccessible and even unknown under equilibrium conditions. Such a bistable switching has been achieved in a “polaronic Wigner-crystalline Mott insulator” 1T-TaS2. After the experimental review, some time will be devoted to a phenomenological theory (collaboration with N. Kirova). Thus, the modeling of the quasi-condensate of excitons interacting with the order parameter recovers the dynamical realization of the “excitonic insulator” state and spacio-temporal patterns with self-focusing, domains segregation, and local dynamical phase transitions.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, January 29, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Serguei Brazovskii (LPTMS, CNRS & University Paris-Sud & NUST MISiS)
Collective conductivity, criticality and reconstruction in systems with an infinite permittivity

This talk will be devoted to conducting systems with unhindered polar deformations: ferroelectric semiconductors near the critical temperature and charge density waves (CDW) subjected to pinning and junctions constraint. For ferroelectrics, epitomized by Mott insulators in organic stack materials, we shall find access to the critical dynamics, to the creep of domain walls, and to the polarization dumping by solitons. For CDWs, we shall model the reconstruction of their current carrying states in junctions channels via dynamical and static vortex structures. For completeness, we shall recall also old stories of frequency and temperature dependence of the permittivity of CDWs under pinning and Coulomb interactions.
The presented results are based on collaborations with P. Monceau and F. Nad in experiment and with N. Kirova and A. Larkin in theory.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, January 22, 2016, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Yu.N. Ovchinnikov, I.M. Sigal
Instability of threeangular Abrikosov lattice at the Ginzburg-Landau parameter value κ, close to one

V rabote issleduetsya myagkaya poperechnaya moda besshchelevykh vozbuzhdenii, svyazannaya s deformatsiei treugol'noi reshetki Abrikosova s odnim kvantom potoka v elementarnoi yacheike pri proizvol'nom znachenii parametra Ginzburga-Landau kappa. Pokazano. chto v uzkoi oblasti znachenii kappa, blizkikh k edinitse, reshetka Abrikosova s uglom F=\pi/3 mezhdu vektorami elementarnoi yacheiki neustoichiva. Spektr vozbuzhdenii rassmatrivaemoi mody pri malykh znacheniyakh impul'sa k (v k^2 priblizhenii) izotropen pri k, lezhashchem v ploskosti, perpendikulyarnoi magnitnomu polyu. Naiden interval neustoichivosti po velichine kappa.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 25, 2015, Landau Institute, 1:00 pm
Pavel Ioselevich
Rasshcheplenie kuperovskikh par v ferromagnitnykh skvidakh

We study Josephson junctions between superconductors connected by two parallel ferromagnetic arms. For fully polarised ferromagnets, supercurrent through such a SQUID only flows via Cooper pair splitting between the differently polarised arms. The average current is suppressed, but mesoscopic fluctuations lead to a significant typical current. We calculate this current for the SFS SQUID, as well as for a SQUID with metallic arms with magnetic impurities. The latter shows an h/e periodicity in flux. The current in both systems is of fluctuational origin and is stronger for materials with low conductivity and a low superconducting gap.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 18, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P. M. Ostrovsky
Anomalous Hall effect in weakly disordered ferromagnets

Anomalous Hall effect arises in systems with both spin-orbit coupling and magnetization. Generally, there are three mechanisms contributing to anomalous Hall conductivity: intrinsic, side jump, and skew scattering. The standard diagrammatic approach to the anomalous Hall effect is limited to computation of ladder diagrams. We demonstrate that this approach is insufficient. An important additional contribution comes from diagrams with a single pair of intersecting disorder lines. This contribution constitutes an inherent part of skew scattering on pairs of closely located defects and essentially modifies previously obtained results for anomalous Hall conductivity. We argue that this statement is general and applies to all models of anomalous Hall effect. We illustrate it by an explicit calculation for two-dimensional massive Dirac fermions with weak disorder. In this case, inclusion of the diagrams with crossed impurity lines reverses the sign of the skew scattering term and strongly suppresses the total Hall conductivity at high electron concentrations. The same mechanism for ordiary electrons with spin-orbit coupling (Bychkov-Rashba model) produces an opposite effect increasing the Hall conductivity. In the conduction band, skew scattering with crossed impurity lines is the only source of the anomalous Hall effect.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, December 17, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Arkadii Fedorov (Universitet Kvinslenda, Avstraliya)
Issledovanie kontekstual'nosti so sverkhprovodyashchimi kvantovymi tsepochkami

Kontekstual'nost' yavlyaetsya odnim iz fundamental'nykh svoistv, otlichayushchikh kvantovuyu mekhaniku ot klassicheskoi teorii. Predpolagalos', chto imenno blagodarya etomu "volshebnomu" parametru proiskhodit eksponentsial'noe uskorenie v kvantovykh komp'yuterakh. My predostavim pervye eksperimental'nye dokazatel'stva etogo resursa dlya trekhurovnevoi kvantovoi sistemy, postroennoi na sverkhprovodyashchikh konturakh - odnoi iz osnovnykh skhem dlya kvantovykh vychislenii. Svyazav dispersionnye sdvigi sverkhprovodyashchego kutrita s SVCh-rezonatorom, my poluchili sil'nye proektsionnye izmereniya s dvoinymi rezul'tatami. V sochetanii s vysokoi kontrastnost'yu schityvaniya, osushchestvlyaemoi blagodarya parametricheskomu usilitelyu, eto pozvolyaet nam ob'edinit' oba izmereniya i sovmestit' obkhody tsiklov, kotorye prisutstvovali v predydushchikh eksperimental'nykh ispytaniyakh.

Theory seminar, Thursday, December 10, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Serguei Brazovskii
Recent identifications of microscopic solitons in quasi 1D electronic systems and generalisations to higher dimensions

We review a progress in experiments and theory, elucidating the role of microscopic solitons in quasi-1D electronic systems with a symmetry breaking. The new interest rises from studies of the «electronic ferroelectricity» in organic conductors, and from nano-scale tunneling experiments in Charge Density Wave (CDW) materials. Individual solitons have been visually captured in recent STM experiments. On this basis we extrapolate to a picture of combined topological excitations in general strongly correlated systems: from doped antiferromagnets to strong coupling and spin-polarized superconductors. At more macroscopic scales, we recover the electronic vortices generated in mesa-junctions, and domain walls evolving in femtosecond pump-probe experiments.

Seminar "Coherent and self-organization phenomena in metamaterials", Wednesday, December 9, 2015, MISiS, 11:00 am
George P. Tsironis (NUST «MISIS»; University of Crete, Greese)
Coherent and self-organization phenomena in metamaterials

09 December 2015 the seminar "Coherent and self-organization phenomena in metamaterials" will take place in NUST «MISIS» (auditorium G-410, Leninsky pr., 6, The Mining College building, Metro station: Oktyabr`skaya kol`tsevaya)

The shedule:

11:00 «Chimeras in SQUID metamaterials», George P. Tsironis (NUST «MISIS»; University of Crete, Greese)

11:45 «Control of power in parity-time symmetric lattices», George P. Tsironis (NUST «MISIS»; University of Crete, Greese)

12:30 «Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials», Zoran Ivic (Institute of Nuclear Sciences "Vinca", Serbia)

13:15 «Imaging coherent response of a superconducting metasurface», Alexander S. Averkin (NUST «MISIS»)

Everyone is welcome - especially young scientists interested in new experience in the field of micro- and nano-technology of superconductors.

Skip for seminar participants who are not students, graduate students or employees of NUST "MISIS", will be carried out upon presentation of passport subject to prior registration for the seminar

Contact: Andrew Maliszewski, tel. +7 916 135 03 25,

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 4, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Serguei Brazovskii (LPTMS, CNRS & University Paris-Sud & NUST MISiS)
Dynamical phase transitions in electronic systems induced by ultra-fast optical pumping.

I shall report on several studies of phase transformations in cooperative electronic systems achieved by means of a femto-second optical pumping. 1. Experiments on charge density waves recovered coherent unharmonic undulations of the order parameter, critical slowing down of the collective mode, and evolution of the particle-hole gap. The numerical modeling reproduced the dynamical phase transition, and the waves emitted by “earthquakes” from in depth annihilation events of topological defects.*) 2. The bistable switching to a “hidden” state has been achieved in a “polaronic Wigner-crystalline Mott insulator” 1T-TaS2. The theory focuses upon evolution of electrons and holes as mobile charge carriers, and the crystallized electrons modifiable by intrinsic defects.*) 3. The special case of resonance optical pumping to excitons is realized in systems with a neutral-ionic ferroelectric transition. The modeling of the quantum-coherent quasi-condensate of excitons interacting with the order parameter recovers the dynamical realization of the “excitonic insulator” state and spacio-temporal patterns with self-focusing, domains segregation, and local dynamical phase transitions.**) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)After collaboration with D. Mihailovic group at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia. **) After collaboration with N. Kirova, LPS, University Paris-Sud, Orsay, France.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, November 26, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Prof. Yukio Tanaka (Nagoya University, Japan)
Odd-frequency pairing and Andreev bound states

Superconductivity is a phenomenon where the macroscopic quantum coherence appears due to the pairing of electrons. The symmetry properties of the pairing, i.e., the parity and spin-singlet/spin-triplet, determine the physical properties of the superconducting state. Odd-frequency pairing originally discussed by Berezinskii as a bulk state. Although the bulk odd-frequency superconductor has not discovered experimentally, the importance of odd-frequency pairing amplitude has been recognized in ferromagnet / superconductor junctions and non-uniform systems. We have clarified that odd-frequency pair amplitude arises in the spatially non-uniform situation quite ubiquitously where bulk superconductor has a conventional even-frequency symmetry. Especially, it has been revealed that when the Andreev bound state (ABS) appears at the surface/interface of the sample, odd-frequency pairing is enhanced. It has been revealed that there are many exotic properties relevant to odd-frequency pairing like anomalous proximity effect in spin-triplet superconductor junctions. This anomalous proximity effect becomes prominent if we consider disordered normal (N) nano wire attached to a topologically nontrivial superconducting (S) one. The transport properties in superconducting nano-wire junctions show universal behaviors irrespective of the degree of disorder: the quantized zero-bias differential conductance at in NS junctions. The odd-frequency pairs exist wherever the Majorana fermions stay. We further discuss a strong relationship between Majorana fermions and odd-frequency Cooper pairs in several topological superconducting systems.

Theory seminar, Thursday, November 26, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
A.V. Samokhvalov (IFM RAN, Nizhnii Novgorod)
Elektrodinamika sloistykh gibridnykh struktur sverkhprovodnik/ferromagnetik/sverkhprovodnik v okrestnosti 0-π perekhoda

Gibridnye struktury sverkhprovodnik/ferromagnetik/sverkhprovodnik (SFS) s effektom blizosti yavlyayutsya udobnym ob'ektom dlya izucheniya fazovykh perekhodov, vyzvannykh vzaimodeistviem dvukh konkuriruyushchikh parametrov poryadka: sverkhprovodyashchego i ferromagnitnogo. Neobychnoe povedenie sloistykh SF struktur, kak pravilo, svyazano s interesnym yavleniem π-sverkhprovodimosti pri kotorom v gibridnoi strukture formiruetsya ravnovesnoe sostoyanie s netrivial'noi raznost'yu faz π mezhdu sosednimi sverkhprovodnikami. Effekt blizosti na SF granitsakh privodit k chastichnomu ili polnomu podavleniyu sverkhprovodimosti v S sloyakh, a velichina effekta zavisit ot struktury parnoi volnovoi funktsii, t.e. ot tipa sostoyaniya (0 ili π), kotoroe ustanavlivaetsya v SFS strukture. V doklade obsuzhdayutsya prichiny rezkogo uvelicheniya effektivnoi glubiny proniknoveniya magnitnogo polya λ(T) pri ponizhenii temperatury T, kotoroe nablyudalos' v diffuznykh SFS strukturakh Nb/PdNi/Nb s tonkimi (poryadka sverkhprovodyashchei dliny kogerentnosti) S sloyami [1]. Predlozhena model', ob'yasnyayushchaya podobnuyu anomaliyu proyavleniem fazovogo perekhoda mezhdu 0 i π sverkhprovodyashchimi sostoyaniyami SFS struktury. Osnovyvayas' na mikroskopicheskikh uravneniyakh Uzadelya, polucheno razlozhenie Ginzburga—Landau, koeffitsienty kotorogo zavisyat ot raspredeleniya parnoi volnovoi funktsii v ferromagnetike i razlichny dlya 0 i π sostoyanii SFS struktury. Vypolneny raschety svobodnoi energii 0 i π sostoyanii, temperatury 0−π perekhoda, i privedena fazovaya diagramma SFS struktury na ploskosti parametrov (temperatura — tolshchina F sloya). Perekhod mezhdu 0 i π sostoyaniyami pri izmenenii temperatury proiskhodit po tipu fazovogo perekhoda pervogo roda, soprovozhdaetsya skachkoobraznym izmeneniem amplitudy volnovoi funktsii v S sloyakh i, kak sledstvie, rezkim izmeneniem ekraniruyushchikh svoistv SFS struktury. Priveden obobshchennyi funktsional Ginzburga—Landau, spravedlivyi dlya proizvol'noi raznosti faz sverkhprovodyashchikh parametrov poryadka S sloev, i vypolneny raschety tok-fazovoi zavisimosti SFS dzhozefsonovskogo perekhoda s tonkimi sverkhprovodyashchimi elektrodami v okrestnosti perekhoda mezhdu 0 i π sostoyaniyami [2]. Literatura: [1] N. Pompeo et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 064510 (2014). [2] A. V. Samokhvalov and A. I. Buzdin, Phys. Rev. B 92, 054511 (2015).

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, November 13, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
I.S. Burmistrov
Charge relaxation resistance in the cotunneling regime of multi-channel Coulomb blockade: Violation of Korringa-Shiba relation

We study the low frequency admittance of a small metallic island coupled to a gate electrode and to a massive reservoir via a multi channel tunnel junction. The ac current is caused by a slowly oscillating gate voltage. We focus on the regime of inelastic cotunneling in which the dissipation of energy (the real part of the admittance) is determined by two-electron tunneling with creation of electron-hole pairs on the island. We demonstrate that at finite temperatures but low frequencies the energy dissipation is ohmic whereas at zero temperature it is super-ohmic. We find that (i) the charge relaxation resistance (extracted from the real part of the admittance) is strongly temperature dependent, (ii) the imaginary and real parts of the admittance do not satisfy the Korringa-Shiba relation. At zero temperature the charge relaxation resistance vanishes in agreement with the recent zero temperature analysis [M. Filippone and C. Mora, Phys. Rev. B86, 125311 (2012) and P. Dutt, T. L. Schmidt, C. Mora, and K. Le Hur, Phys. Rev. B 87, 155134 (2013)].

Theory seminar, Thursday, November 12, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Georg Schwiete (SPICE and Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germany)
Thermal transport in the disordered electron liquid

In this talk, I will present a theoretical study of thermal transport in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid. At temperatures smaller than the impurity scattering rate, in the diffusive regime, thermal conductivity acquires non-analytic quantum corrections. Our approach to this problem is based on an analysis of the heat density-heat density correlation function. To this end, Luttinger’s gravitational potentials are introduced in the action as sources that couple to the heat density. In a two-stage procedure, a renormalization group calculation based on the Keldysh non-linear sigma model in the presence of Luttinger’s gravitational potentials is supplemented with a perturbative study of scattering processes induced by the Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. These scattering processes are at the origin of logarithmic corrections violating the Wiedemann-Franz law. As an application, I intend to discuss thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition in Si MOSFETs. References: G. Schwiete and A.M. Finkel’stein, PRB 90, 060201 (2014); PRB 90, 155441 (2014); arXiv:1509.02519; arXiv:1510.06529.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, November 6, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
M. V. Feigel'man
Level repulsion exponent β for Many-Body Localization Transitions and for Anderson Localization Transitions via Dyson Brownian Motion

Referativnyi doklad po rabote Cecile Monthus, arxiv:1510.08322.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, November 6, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Konstantin Tikhonov
Chislennoe issledovanie statistiki urovnei i volnovykh funktsii na sluchainykh regulyarnykh grafakh s besporyadkom

Interes k zadache ob odnochastichnoi lokalizatsii na sluchainom regulyarnom grafe (RRG) v poslednee vremya vozros v svyazi s problemoi mnogochastichnoi lokalizatsii (MBL). Kachestvenno, MBL mozhno ponimat' kak Andersonovskuyu lokalizatsiyu v prostranstve Sleterovskikh determinantov, kotorye igrayut rol' uzlov v neoporyadochennoi pryzhkovoi modeli. Tak kak struktura Fokovskogo prostranstva ierarkhichna, sootvetstvuyushchaya reshetka napominaet sluchainyi regulyarnyi graf. V etoi rabote my izuchaem Andersonovskii perekhod v ansamble RRG s besporyadkom s pomoshch'yu tochnoi chislennoi diagonalizatsii. My pokazyvaem, chto poluchennaya kartina perekhoda na RRG sovmestima s sushchestvuyushchei teoriei, s usloviem pravil'noi interpretatsii poluchennykh rezul'tatov i ucheta effektov konechnosti razmera grafa. Nash analiz snimaet protivorechie mezhdu imeyushchimisya teoreticheskimi rezul'tatami i chislennymi issledovaniyami drugikh avtorov.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 23, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Pavel Vigman
Geometricheskii transport v kvantovom effekte Kholla

Khorosho izvestno chto provodimost' Kholla kvantuetsya s vysokoi tochnost'yu. Sushchestvuyut li drugie transportnye koeffitsienty, kvantuyushchiesya s takoi zhe tochnost'yu? Okazyvaetsya, chto takikh koeffitsientov kak minimum dva. Oni svyazany s transportom, vyzvannym izmeneniem geometricheskoi formy elektronnoi zhidkosti.

Po rabote: S. Klevtsov, P. Wiegmann: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115: 086801 (2015)

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, October 16, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
Sergei Mironov (MFTI)
Dzhozefsonovskii transport cherez nanoprovoloki: mnogokanal'naya interferentsiya i magnitnye ostsillyatsii

V rabote teoreticheski pokazano, chto kriticheskii tok dzhozefsonovskogo kontakta, soderzhashchego nanoprovoloku s dvumya provodyashchimi kanalami, ispytyvaet mnogoperiodicheskie magnitnye ostsillyatsii. Mnogoperiodichnost' voznikaet iz-za kvantovomekhanicheskoi interferentsii mezhdu kanalami, na kotoruyu sushchestvennoe vliyanie okazyvayut sil'nye spin-orbital'noe i zeemanovskoe vzaimodeistviya. Rassmotrennaya minimal'naya dvukhkanal'naya model' pozvolyaet ob'yasnit' slozhnye interferentsionnye yavleniya, obnaruzhennye v eksperimentakh po izmereniyu dzhozefsonovskogo transporta cherez nanoprovoloki vismuta.

MIPT Interdisciplinary center for basic research: colloquium, Wednesday, October 14, 2015, MFTI, 113GK, 5:05 pm
Sergei Mironov
Prostranstvenno neodnorodnye sostoyaniya v gibridnykh sistemakh sverkhprovodnik-ferromagnetik

Khorosho izvestno, chto sverkhprovodimost' i magnetizm - antagonisticheskie yavleniya, kotorye ne mogut odnovremenno realizovyvat'sya v odnom materiale. Odnako, ikh sosushchestvovanie stanovitsya vozmozhnym v mnogosloinykh gibridnykh sistemakh, v kotorykh sverkhprovodyashchie i ferromagnitnye oblasti prostranstvenno razdeleny. Osnovnaya osobennost' takikh sistem - vozniknovenie neodnorodnykh sverkhprovodyashchikh sostoyanii s ekzoticheskimi magnitnymi i transportnymi svoistvami, kotorye mogut byt' polozheny v osnovu novogo klassa ustroistv vychislitel'noi mikroelektroniki. Seminar budet posvyashchen obzoru osnovnykh svoistv takikh neodnorodnykh sostoyanii i printsipov raboty ustroistv na ikh osnove.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 9, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
V.V. Sivak, A.S. Ioselevich
“Polzuchaya” provodimost', relaksatsiya i fluktuatsii v sisteme podvizhnykh metallicheskikh granul

My rassmatrivaem nestatsionarnuyu sistemu provodnikov, soprotivleniya mezhdu kotorymi ispytyvayut sil'nye fluktuatsii vo vremeni. Transport mezhdu paroi sosednikh provodnikov opredelyaetsya temi momentami, kogda sootvetstvuyushchee soprotivlenie anomal'no malo (provodniki “kasayutsya drug druga”). V takie momenty voznikaet “proboi” i zaryad legko peretekaet mezhdu paroi soprikosnuvshikhsya provodnikov. Protsess perenosa zaryada za schet proboev, voznikayushchikh v sluchainye momenty v sluchainykh mestakh, my nazvali polzuchei provodimost'yu. My rassmatrivaem kak trekhmernye, tak i nizkorazmernye massivy provodnikov i issleduem provodimost' sistemy, rastekanie zaryada, pervonachal'no sosredotochennogo na odnom provodnike, a takzhe fluktuatsii zaryadov i elektricheskikh polei i ikh prostranstvenno-vremennuyu korrelyatsiyu. Obsuzhdayutsya vozmozhnye realizatsii modeli v kolloidnykh rastvorakh i sistemakh metallicheskikh sharikov, soedinennykh deformiruemymi polimernymi molekulami.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 9, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Igor Poboiko, Mikhail Feigel'man
Thermal transport in disordered one-dimensional spin chains

We study one-dimensional anisotropic XY-Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain with weak random fields hziSzi by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation to spinless Luttinger liquid with disorder and bosonization technique. First we investigate phase diagram of the system in terms of dimensionless disorder γ=?h2?/J2?1 and anisotropy parameter Δ=Jz/Jxy and find the range of these parameters where disorder is irrelevant in the infrared limit and spin-spin correlations are described by power laws. Then we use the diagram technique in terms of plasmon excitations to study low-temperature behavior of heat conductivity κ and spin conductivity σ in this power-law phase. The obtained Lorentz number L≡κ/σT differs from the value derived earlier by means of memory function method. We argue also that in the studied region inelastic scattering is strong enough to suppress quantum interference in the low-temperature limit.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, October 2, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
K. Tikhonov
Kagome chiral spin liquid as a gauged U(1) symmetry protected topological phase

Referativnyi doklad po rabote Y.-C. He, S. Bhattacharjee, F. Pollmann, R. Moessner, arXiv:1509.03070

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, September 25, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
I. Burmistrov
Tunneling into the localized phase near Anderson transitions
Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 25, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
M. V. Feigel'man
Sverkhtekuchaya plotnost' sil'no neuporyadochennykh sverkhprovodnikov i ikh anomal'noe povedenie pri nizkikh temperaturakh i sil'nykh magnitnykh polyakh.

Doklad budet sostoyat' iz dvukh chastei. V pervoi iz nikh budet pokazano, na osnove sovmestnoi s L.B.Ioffe raboty [1], chto sverkhprovodniki s psevdoshchel'yu obladayut anomal'noi zavisimost'yu sverkhtekuchei plotnosti \rho_s ot velichiny sverkhprovodyashchei shcheli \Delta: \rho_s ~ \Delta^2. Pokhozhee povedenie bylo nedavno nablyudeno [2]. Vo vtoroi chasti doklada ya pokazhu, kak mozhno ob'yasnit' shiroko izvestnoe dlya sil'no gryaznykh sverkhprovodnikov anomal'noe povedenie verkhnego kriticheskogo polya H_c2(T) pri nizkikh temperaturakh, ispol'zuya nedavnii eksperimental'nyi rezul'tat [3] o nalichii perekhoda Berezinskogo-Kosterlitsa-Taulesa v sluchae sverkhprovodyashchei plenki v sil'nom magnitnom pole i rezul'taty izmereniya kriticheskogo toka kak funktsii magnitnogo polya v predele ochen' nizkikh temperaturakh [4].
[1] M. V. Feigel'man, L. B. Ioffe arXiv:1509.05138, Phys Rev B, accepted.
[2] D. Sherman et al, Nature Phys. (2015)
[3] S. Misra, L. Urban, M. Kim, G. Sambandamurthy, and A. Yazdani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 037002 (2013)
[4] J.Seidemann et al, unpublished (Master diploma thesis, Grenoble 2013).

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, September 18, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
E. Repin
Topologicheskii Kondo izolyator

Referativnyi doklad pro vozmozhnuyu realizatsiyu topologicheskogo izolyatora v sil'nokorrelirovannoi elektronnoi sisteme. Teoreticheskoe predskazanie i eksperimental'nye svidetel'stva v materiale SmB_6.

[1] M. Dzero, K. Sun, V. Galitski, P. Coleman, PRL 104, 106408 (2010).
[2] M. Ye, J. W. Allen, K. Sun,
[3] S. Wolgast, Ç. Kurdak, K. Sun, J. W. Allen, D.-J. Kim, Z. Fisk, PRB 88, 180405(R) (2013).

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 18, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Daniil Antonenko
Kvantovyi raspad sverkhtokovogo sostoyaniya i sobstvennaya emkost' Dzhozefsonovskikh perekhodov za ramkami tunnel'nogo priblizheniya

A nondissipative supercurrent state of a Josephson junction is metastable with respect to the formation of a finite-resistance state. This transition is driven by fluctuations, thermal at high temperatures and quantum at low temperatures. We evaluate the life time of such a state due to quantum fluctuations in the limit when the supercurrent is approaching the critical current. The decay probability is determined by the instanton action for the superconducting phase difference across the junction. At low temperatures, dynamics of the phase is massive and is determined by the effective capacitance, which is a sum of the geometric and intrinsic capacitance of the junction. We model the central part of the Josephson junction either by an arbitrary short mesoscopic conductor described by the set of its transmission coefficients, or by a diffusive wire of an arbitrary length. The intrinsic capacitance can generally be estimated as $C_* \sim G/E_g$, where $G$ is the normal-state conductance of the junction and $E_g$ is the proximity minigap in its normal part. The obtained capacitance is sufficiently large to qualitatively explain hysteretic behavior of the current-voltage characteristic even in the absence of overheating.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 18, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
S. Autti, V.V. Dmitriev, V.B. Eltsov, J. Makinen, G.E. Volovik, A.N. Yudin, V.V. Zavjalov
Observation of half-quantum vortices in superfluid 3He

Recently in Kapitza Institute a new phase of the superfluid 3He was reported to exist in the aerogel-like nafen structure - the so-called polar phase. As distinct from the other phases - the chiral superfluid 3He-A with Weyl nodes and the fully gapped topological 3He-B with Dirac nodes on the surface - the polar phase has Dirac nodal line in bulk and dispersionless band of Andreev-Majorana fermions on the surface. Being the spin-triplet superfluid with equal-spin pairing the polar phase can support an exotic object - the half-quantum vortex (HQV). Originally the HQVs have been predicted to exist in the Weyl superfluid 3He-A in 1976, but still they have not been observed there: unfavorable combination of spin-orbit and magnetic anisotropy effects on the orientation of the order parameter did not allow to stabilize these vortices in bulk 3He-A under rotation. In nafen, the nearly parallel aerogel strands pin the orbital part of the order parameter of the polar phase. As a result, if the magnetic field is absent or is oriented parallel to nafen strands, the half-quantum vortices win over the conventional single-quantum vortices.
If HQVs are formed in rotation and then the field is tilted with respect to the strands, one expects that the spin-orbit interaction would induce the formation of the topological solitons between the neighboring HQVs providing the peculiar satellite peak in the NMR spectrum. We used this theoretical prediction to stabilize and identify the HQVs in the Helsinki rotated cryostat. For that we cool down a sample of nafen through transition temperature to the polar phase in rotation up to 2.75 rad/s without magnetic field. Then the field is switched on, and in the tilted field we observe a satellite peak in the NMR spectrum. The dependence of the satellite on the rotation velocity, temperature and the field orientation is in agreement with the predictions. If cool-down occurs with the field applied in the transverse direction, no satellite eak is observed. This demonstrates that the single-quantum vortices are formed instead, which have no NMR signatures. in such arrangement these vortices win over the HQVs as expected.

Theory seminar, Thursday, September 10, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
D.S. Shapiro (Vserossiiskii NII avtomatiki im. N.L. Dukhova; IRE im. V.A. Kotel'nikova RAN), A.A. Zhukov, V.V. Pogosov, Yu.E. Lozovik
Dynamical Lamb effect in a tunable superconducting qubit-cavity system

Dinamicheskii effekt Lemba yavlyaetsya odnim iz vozmozhnykh mekhanizmov parametricheskogo vozbuzhdeniya atoma v rezonatore [A.M. Fedotov, N.B. Narozhny, and Yu.E. Lozovik, PRA 64, 053807 (2001)]. Effekt voznikaet v rezul'tate modulyatsii lembovskogo sdviga atoma za schet, naprimer, neadiabaticheskogo izmeneniya chastoty fotonnoi mody. Tem ne menee, v sisteme s perestraivaemym rezonatorom etot mekhanizm vozbuzhdeniya slozhno izolirovat' ot drugikh kanalov, svyazannykh s generatsiei i pogloshcheniem kazimirovskikh fotonov. V doklade predlozhena al'ternativnaya realizatsiya dinamicheskogo effekta Lemba, kotoraya vozmozhna v sovremennykh sverkhprovodnikovykh sistemakh kubit-rezonator v rezhime perestraivaemoi energii svyazi. Pokazano, chto imenno za schet neadiabaticheskogo pereklyucheniya energii vzaimodeistviya mozhno modulirovat' lembovskii sdvig i vozbuzhdat' kubit v otsutstvie fotonnoi nakachki. Takoi podkhod pozvolyaet izbezhat' rozhdeniya kazimirovskikh fotonov, chto yavlyaetsya klyuchevym obstoyatel'stvom dlya realizatsii dinamicheskogo effekta Lemba. Dinamika sistemy opisyvaetsya v ramkakh nestatsionarnoi modeli Rabi dlya edinichnogo i periodicheskogo pereklyuchenii energii svyazi kubita i rezonatora. [D.S. Shapiro, A.A. Zhukov, W.V. Pogosov, Yu.E. Lozovik, "Dynamical Lamb effect in a tunable superconducting qubit-cavity system", Phys. Rev. A 91, 063814 (2015); arXiv:1503.01666]

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, July 23, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Prof. doktor Mikhail Zigel' (Tekhnologicheskii Institut Karlsrue, Germaniya)
Odnofotonnye i teragertsovye detektory na osnove sverkhprovodyashchikh nanoprovolok

Odnofotonnye detektory na osnove sverkhprovodyashchikh nanoprovolok (Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors (SNSPD)) issleduyutsya nauchnym soobshchestvom uzhe v techenii nekotorogo vremeni, chto privelo k sushchestvennomu progressu v ponimanii ikh raznoobraznykh opticheskikh, elektricheskikh i drugikh fizicheskikh svoistv. Spektral'naya polosa propuskaniya SNSPD ogranichennaya dlinoi volny otsechki, kotoraya opredelyaetsya parametrami sverkhprovodyashchei plenki, ispol'zuemoi dlya detektora, i geometriei detektora. Na segodnyashnii den' sushchestvuet mnozhestvo razlichnykh prilozhenii, gde SNSPD detektory, integrirovannye v izmeritel'nye kriogennye sistemy, pozvolyayut provodit' eksperimenty v oblasti kvantovoi kriptografii, izlucheniya kvantovykh tochek ili spektroskopii. Prichinu shirokogo ispol'zovaniya SNSPD detektorov dlya takikh zadach mozhno legko ob'yasnit', esli prinyat' vo vnimanie nekotorye poleznye svoistva SNSPD detektorov, a imenno nizkuyu temnovuyu skorost' scheta, vysokuyu skorost' detektirovaniya i vysokuyu tochnost' sinkhronizatsii v pikosekundnom diapazone.

V nashi dni SNSPD sistemy osnovany, glavnym obrazom, na odnopiksel'nykh detektorakh. Mnogopiksel'nye sistemy dolzhny rasshirit' potentsial'nye oblasti primeneniya detektorov. Po etoi prichine, neobkhodimy novye kontseptsii dlya organizatsii schityvaniya dannykh s mnogopiksel'nykh SNSPD sistem. My daem obzor vozmozhnykh kontseptsii, uslovii raboty i sposobov optimizatsii SNSPD detektorov dlya konkretnykh prilozhenii, rabotayushchikh v odnofotonnom rezhime.

Osnovyvayas' na tekh zhe sverkhprovodyashchikh sverkhtonkikh plenkakh mogut byt' realizovany Bolometry na goryachikh elektronakh (Hot-Electron Bolometers (HEBs)) dlya neposredstvennogo detektirovaniya i ponizhayushchego preobrazovaniya teragertsovogo izlucheniya. My obsudim HEB-smesiteli na osnove ul'tratonkikh plenok NbN dlya geterodinnogo detektirovaniya TGts signalov. Krome togo, my razrabotali detektor neposredstvennogo TGts-detektirovaniya na osnove tonkoplenochnykh nanostruktur iz vysokotemperaturnogo sverkhprovodnika YBa2Cu3O7-kh. Eti detektory imeyut predel'noe vremennoe razreshenie okolo 10-20 ps, pozvolyaya provodit' izmereniya pikosekundnykh impul'sov, ispuskaemykh istochnikom sinkhrotronnogo izlucheniya.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, July 16, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
prof., doktor Rudol'f Gross (Walther-Meissner-Institut, Technische Universität München, Germany)
Sverkhprovodyashchie gibridnye kvantovye sistemy
Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, July 2, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Val'ter Pogosov (Vserossiiskii nauchno-issledovatel'skii institut avtomatiki im. N. L. Dukhova)
Dinamicheskii effekt Lemba v svyazannoi sisteme sverkhprovodnikovogo kubita i SVCh-rezonatora

Nekotoroe vremya nazad bylo rassmotreno povedenie edinichnogo atoma, pomeshchennogo v polost' s izmenyayushchimisya vo vremeni parametrami - [A. M. Fedotov, N. B. Narozhny, Yu. E. Lozovik, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053807 (2001)]. Bylo pokazano, chto v takoi sisteme realizuetsya neskol'ko mekhanizmov parametricheskogo vozbuzhdeniya atoma. Odin iz nikh svyazan s vozbuzhdeniem za schet neadiabaticheskoi modulyatsii lembovskogo sdviga v osnovnom sostoyanii atoma. Eto yavlenie bylo nazvano dinamicheskim effektom Lemba (po analogii s dinamicheskim effektom Kazimira). V sluchae real'nogo atoma, pomeshchennogo v polost' s izmenyayushchimisya vo vremeni parametrami, dinamicheskii effekt Lemba okazyvaetsya dovol'no slozhno izolirovat' ot inykh mekhanizmov vozbuzhdeniya atoma. V dannoi rabote pokazano, chto dlya realizatsii dinamicheskogo effekta Lemba perspektivno ispol'zovat' iskusstvennyi «atom»-kubit, svyazannyi s SVCh-rezonatorom. Kharakternuyu energiyu vzaimodeistviya mezhdu kubitom i rezonatorom mozhno menyat' vo vremeni, chto vpolne osushchestvimo s tochki zreniya sovremennogo eksperimenta. Za schet neadiabaticheskogo izmeneniya energii vzaimodeistviya mozhno dobit'sya vozbuzhdeniya kubita. Dannyi podkhod pozvolyaet izbezhat' rozhdeniya kazimirovskikh fotonov, chto yavlyaetsya klyuchevym obstoyatel'stvom dlya realizatsii dinamicheskogo effekta Lemba.

[D. S. Shapiro, A. A. Zhukov, W. V. Pogosov, Yu. E. Lozovik, "Dynamical Lamb effect in a tunable superconducting qubit-cavity system", Phys. Rev. A 91, 063814 (2015); arXiv:1503.01666]

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, June 11, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Aleksandr Kirichenko (HYPRES, SShA)
Sverkhprovodnikovyi komp'yuter: status i perspektivy

S uvelicheniem vychislitel'nykh moshchnostei, ostro vstal vopros potreblyaemoi energii. Razrabotka sverkhprovodnikovogo komp'yutera vo mnogikh laboratoriyakh rassmatrivaetsya kak reshenie problemy nizkoenergeticheskikh vychislenii. Nekotorye vidy adiabaticheskikh vychislenii na sverkhprovodnikakh (naprimer QFP) priblizhayutsya k teoreticheskomu predelu energozatrat. Odnokvantovaya logika, khotya i ustupaet im v energovydelenii, yavlyaetsya naibolee perspektivnoi na segodnyashnii den'.

V doklade budet priveden obzor tekushchego sostoyaniya del v razrabotke SFQ protsessorov, a takzhe budut zatronuty nekotorye drugie perspektivnye napravleniya v vychislitel'noi elektronike.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, May 22, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
S.V. Iordanskii
Novyi kvantovyi mekhanizm provodimosti v dvukhsloinykh geterostrukturakh
Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, May 21, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
N.V. Klenov (MGU im. Lomonosova, Fizicheskii fakul'tet)
Vol't-potokovye preobrazovaniya v dzhozefsonovskikh strukturakh na osnove sverkhprovodyashchikh kvantovykh interferometrov

Sverkhprovodyashchie kvantovye interferometry (SKVIDy) shiroko izvestny svoei sposobnost'yu prevrashchat' prilozhennyi magnitnyi signal v otklik napryazheniya. V dannom doklade my predstavlyaem obzor ryada eksperimental'nykh i teoreticheskikh rabot, napravlennykh na sozdanie na osnove SKVIDov struktur so spetsificheskim vidom vol't-potokovoi kharakteristiki (primerom mogut posluzhit' struktury s vysokoi lineinost'yu preobrazovaniya magnitnogo potoka v napryazhenie). Budut razobrany fizicheskie osnovy sozdaniya sverkhprovodyashchikh kvantovykh interferentsionnykh fil'trov (SKIFov), differentsial'nykh dzhozefsonovskikh struktur, bi-SKVIDov i bi-SKVID SKIFov.

Theory seminar, Thursday, May 21, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Yu.A. Kosevich (Institut khimicheskoj fiziki im. N.N. Semenova RAN)
Interferentsiya fononov v atomarnykh metazerkalakh, «fononnykh kondensatorakh» i v teploperenose cherez granitsy razdela kristallov

Seminar budet posvyashchen opisaniyu novykh nizkorazmernykh metamaterialov i transportnykh yavlenii, v kotorykh vazhnuyu rol' igraet interferentsiya fononov na atomarnykh defektakh reshetki kristalla. Budet pokazano, chto vozmozhno rezonansnoe polnoe otrazhenie ili polnoe pogloshchenie fonona dvumernym defektom reshetki, effektivnaya tolshchina kotorogo znachitel'no men'she dliny volny fonona. Chastoty takikh rezonansov opredelyayutsya dinamicheskimi svoistvami defektnoi ploskosti. Yavlenie polnogo otrazheniya (antirezonansa prokhozhdeniya) vozmozhno, v chastnosti, na monoatomnoi kristallicheskoi ploskosti, chastichno zapolnennoi atomarnymi defektami, i na dvumernom defekte reshetki, v kotorom sushchestvenny vzaimodeistviya kak blizhaishikh, tak i ne blizhaishikh sosedei. Analiz etikh yavlenii pokazyvaet, chto opredelyayushchuyu rol' v nikh, v otlichie ot rezonansa Fano, igraet destruktivnaya interferentsiya fononov, rasprostranyayushchikhsya cherez dvumernyi defekt po dvum putyam: po silovym svyazyam atomov matritsy i defektov, ili po svyazyam blizhaishikh i ne blizhaishikh sosedei. Pokazano, chto sluchainoe raspredelenie defektov v kristallicheskoi ploskosti i angarmonizm silovykh svyazei ne razrushayut interferentsionnyi antirezonans. Shirinu antirezonansnogo pika otrazheniya mozhno svyazat' s dlinoi kogerentnosti fononnogo volnovogo paketa, kak i v sluchae destruktivnoi interferentsii fotonnykh volnovykh paketov v effekte Khonga-U-Mandela. Pokazano, chto destruktivnaya interferentsiya fononov ponizhaet teplovoi kondaktans granitsy razdela kristallov, chastichno zapolnennoi rezonansnymi atomarnymi defektami. Na osnove atomarnykh metazerkal mozhet byt' postroen ul'tra kompaktnyi «fononnyi kondensator» dlya khraneniya i izlucheniya kogerentnykh teragertsovykh fononov. Vse osnovnye predstavlennye vyvody podtverzhdayutsya analiticheskimi raschetami ekvivalentnykh kvaziodnomernykh reshetok i molekulyarno-dinamicheskim modelirovaniem realistichnykh trekhmernykh reshetok. [Literatura: 1. Yu.A. Kosevich «Capillary phenomena and macroscopic dynamics of complex two-dimensional defects in crystals», Progr. Surf. Sci. 55, 1 (1997). 2. Yu.A. Kosevich «Mnogokanal'noe rasprostranenie i rasseyanie fononov i fotonov v nizkorazmernykh nanostrukturakh», UFN 178(8), 884 (2008). 3. H. Han, L. Potyomina, A.A. Darinskii, S. Volz, and Yu.A. Kosevich «Phonon interference and thermal conductance reduction in atomic-scale metamaterials», Phys. Rev. B 89(R), 180301 (2014). 4. H. Han, B. Li, S. Volz, and Yu.A. Kosevich «Ultracompact interference phonon nanocapacitor for storage and lasing of coherent terahertz lattice waves», Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 145501 (2015).]

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, May 8, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
E.S. Tikhonov (IFTT RAN, dokladchik), D.V. Shovkun, D.Kh. Kvon, N.N. Mikhailov, S.A. Dvoretskii, V.S. Khrapai
Drobovoi shum kraevogo transporta v kvantovoi yame HgTe s invertirovannoi zonnoi strukturoi

My izuchaem tokovyi shum v CdHgTe/HgTe/CdHgTe kvantovoi yame s invertirovannoi zonnoi strukturoi v rezhime neuporyadochennogo kraevogo transporta. V soglasii s predydushchimi eksperimentami soprotivlenie kraya sushchestvenno prevoskhodit h/e2 i slabo zavisit ot temperatury. Drobovoi shum v rezhime kraevogo transporta znachitel'no podavlen po sravneniyu s puassonovskim znacheniem i kharakterizuetsya faktorom Fano v diapazone 0.1 < F < 0.3 dlya razlichnykh obraztsov i znachenii zatvornogo napryazheniya. S uchetom togo, chto dlina kraya men'she ballisticheskoi dliny sboya fazy, eti nablyudeniya isklyuchayut vozmozhnost' odnomernogo gelikal'nogo kraevogo transporta v nashikh obraztsakh. Rezul'taty eksperimenta kachestvenno mozhno ob'yasnit' v modeli neuporyadochennogo mnogokanal'nogo kvazi-odnomernogo transporta vdol' kraya.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, May 8, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
T.T. Heikkila and G.E. Volovik
Topology of Dirac lines and nexus in graphite

We consider the Z_2 topology of the Dirac lines - lines of band intersection - in graphite. Four lines (three with topological charge N_1=1 each and one with N_1=-1) merge near the H-point and annihilate due to summation law 1+1=0. The merging point is similar to the real-space nexus, the analog of Dirac monopole at which the Z_2 strings terminate.

Theory seminar, Thursday, May 7, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
D. Basko (LPMMC, CNRS, Grenoble, France)
O roli effekta Landau-Zinera v rabote kvantovogo turniketa

Kvantovyi turniket predstavlyaet soboi nanoelektronnoe ustroistvo, kontroliruemym obrazom perenosyashchee elektrony po odnomu mezhdu dvumya sverkhprovodyashchimi elektrodami putem podachi peremennogo napryazheniya na metallicheskuyu nanochastitsu, raspolozhennuyu mezhdu dvumya elektrodami. Okazyvaetsya, chto kogerentnaya svyaz' mezhdu elektronnymi sostoyaniyami v nanochastitse i kvazichastichnymi sostoyaniyami v sverkhprovodnikakh nakladyvaet fundamental'nye ogranicheniya na rabotu ustroistva.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 24, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
A. S. Vasenko, Denis M. Basko, F. W. J. Hekking (University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LPMMC)
Giant mesoscopic fluctuations of the elastic cotunneling thermopower of a single-electron transistor

We study the thermoelectric transport of a small metallic island weakly coupled to two electrodes by tunnel junctions. In the Coulomb blockade regime, in the case when the ground state of the system corresponds to an even number of electrons on the island, the main mechanism of electron transport at the lowest temperatures is elastic cotunneling. In this regime, the transport coefficients strongly depend on the realization of the random impurity potential or the shape of the island. Using random-matrix theory, we calculate the thermopower and the thermoelectric kinetic coefficient and study the statistics of their mesoscopic fluctuations in the elastic cotunneling regime. The fluctuations of the thermopower turn out to be much larger than the average value.
[Phys. Rev. B 91, 085310 (2015)]

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, April 23, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Yu.V. Maslennikov (Institut radiotekhniki i elektroniki Rossiiskoi akademii nauk (IRE RAN); OOO «NPO KRIOTON»)

V vystuplenii budut rassmotreny voprosy razrabotki i sozdaniya osnovnykh elementov SKVID-sistem dlya biomagnitnykh issledovanii: SKVID-datchikov, stekloplastikovykh nemagnitnykh kriostatov, izmeritel'nykh zondov i elektroniki, v tom chisle dlya SKVID-sistem na osnove vysokotemperaturnykh sverkhprovodnikov. Rassmotreny voprosy razrabotki i sozdaniya magnitometricheskikh SKVID-sistem dlya primenenii v magnitokardiografii i magnitoentsefalografii. Privedeny rezul'taty ikh prakticheskogo ispol'zovaniya v klinicheskikh usloviyakh.

MIPT Interdisciplinary center for basic research: colloquium, Wednesday, April 22, 2015, MFTI, 113 GK, 5:05 pm
D. Basko (CNRS, Grenoble, France)
Mnogochastichnaya lokalizatsiya: ot kvantovykh sistem k klassicheskim

When single-particle excitations of a disordered quantum many-body system are all localized in the coordinate space, a sufficiently weak local interaction does not destroy localization at sufficiently low temperatures. Namely, all many-particle excitations remain localized in the Fock space, and there is no relaxation or transport in the system, which is known as many-body localization. It occurs because the local interaction effectively couples a finite number of discrete energy levels, corresponding to localized excitations. When the interaction is weak, these localized excitations are only weakly mixed.

In contrast to a quantum system, where a continuous energy spectrum can be obtained only in the limit of the infinite system size, and is thus subject to localization in the Fock space, in a classical system (e.g., in the disordered nonlinear Schroedinger chain, representing the classical limit of the Bose-Hubbard model), motion can have continuous spectrum already for a finite number of degrees of freedom, and this leads to chaotic dynamics. Because of this, in a disordered system with an extensive energy (with however small density), the probability to be on a chaotic trajectory tends to unity with increasing system size. This produces finite transport coefficients at arbitrarily weak nonlinearity.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 17, 2015, ITF, 3:00 pm
Igor' Zagorodnev (MFTI/IRE RAN)
Rezonansnoe rasseyanie elektronov v grafene na kruglom nanootverstii

Vychisleno transportnoe sechenie rasseyaniya elektronov v grafene na kruglom otverstii (ili defekte). Predpolagaetsya, chto na krayu otverstiya mogut sushchestvovat' kvazistatsionarnye kraevye (tammovskie) sostoyaniya, kotorye privodyat k pikam v sechenii rasseyaniya, kotorye mogli nablyudat'sya v transportnykh eksperimentakh [Yu.I. Latyshev i dr., Pis'ma v ZhETF 98, 242 (2013), Yu.I. Latyshev et al., Scientific Reports 4, 7578 (2014)]. Obsuzhdaetsya uchet neodnorodnosti kraya, a takzhe zaryazhennosti nanootverstiya (defekta), chto privodit k razmytiyu i smeshcheniyu pikov.

Kurs lektsii D. Basko, Tuesday, April 14, 2015, Konferents-zal IFP im. P.L.Kapitsy, 10:00 am
D. Basko (LPMMC, CNRS, Grenoble, France)
Elektrony v nizkorazmernykh neuporyadochennykh sistemakh

Dlya starshekursnikov i aspirantov, spetsializiruyushchikhsya v oblasti kvantovoi teorii kondensirovannogo sostoyaniya

Programma kursa: 1. Andersonovskaya lokalizatsiya v trekh izmereniyakh, lokatornoe razlozhenie. 2. Lokalizatsiya v odnomernoi tsepochke, uravnenie Fokkera-Planka dlya koeffitsienta prokhozhdeniya. 3. Lokalizatsiya v tolstykh kvaziodnomernykh provolokakh (kriterii Taulessa), dinamicheskaya lokalizatsiya v kvantovoi tochke pod nakachkoi i otobrazhenie na kvaziodnomernuyu provoloku. 4. Slabolokalizatsionnaya popravka k provodimosti v dvukh izmereniyakh. 5. Elektron-elektronnoe vzaimodeistvie v kvantovykh tochkakh, universal'nyi gamil'tonian, kulonovskaya blokada, skorostnye uravneniya. 6. Elektron-elektronnye stolknoveniya v nizkorazmernykh sistemakh, mnogochastichnaya lokalizatsiya. 7. Kotunnelirovanie cherez kvantovuyu tochku v rezhime kulonovskoi blokady. 8. Effekt Kondo v kvantovoi tochke v rezhime kulonovskoi blokady.

Vremya: po vtornikam (10-12) i chetvergam (16-18)

Pervaya lektsiya - vo vtornik 14 aprelya 2015 g.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, April 9, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Aleksei Vladimirovich Samokhvalov (Institut fiziki mikrostruktur RAN, g. Nizhnii Novgorod)
Vikhrevye sostoyaniya v neodnosvyaznykh sverkhprovodnikakh i gibridnykh strukturakh

Privedeny rezul'taty teoreticheskikh issledovanii elektronnoi struktury i osobennostei individual'nogo pinninga vikhrya Abrikosova, zakhvachennogo neprovodyashchim tsilindricheskim defektom (polost'yu) s kharakternym razmerom men'she ili poryadka sverkhprovodyashchei dliny kogerentnosti. Predlozhena mikroskopicheskaya model' depinninga (sryva) vikhrya Abrikosova pod vliyaniem vneshnego transportnogo toka, kotoraya uchityvaet izmenenie topologii kvaziklassicheskikh orbit s energiei Fermi i perestroiku spektra vozbuzhdenii v vikhre, zakhvachennom na protyazhennom defekte. Izucheno formirovanie neodnorodnykh i vikhrevykh sostoyanii v gibridnykh strukturakh sverkhprovodnik–ferromagnetik s neodnosvyaznoi geometriei (polyi sverkhprovodyashchii tsilindr s ferromagnitnoi serdtsevinoi), v kotorykh orbital'nyi i obmennyi mekhanizmy, podavlyayushchie sverkhprovodimost', konkuriruyut drug s drugom, a effekt blizosti mozhet stimulirovat' perekhody mezhdu sverkhprovodyashchimi sostoyaniyami s razlichnoi zavikhrennost'yu.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, March 26, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
M.V. Fistul' (Rurskii Universitet, Bokhum Germaniya & Kafedra TFiKT, laboratoriya sverkhprovodyashchikh metamaterialov, NITU MISiS)
Sverkhprovodyashchie kvantovye metamaterialy

Sverkhprovodyashchie kvantovye metamaterialy - iskusstvenno sozdannye novye materialy, sostoyashchie iz bol'shogo chisla sil'no vzaimodeistvuyushchikh kubitov. Elektrodinamicheskie svoistva takikh materialov opredelyayutsya zakonami kvantovoi mekhaniki na makroskopicheskom urovne.

V doklade budet predstavlen obzor nedavnikh eksperimental'nykh i teoreticheskikh issledovanii prokhozhdeniya voln v sverkhprovodyashchikh kvantovykh metamaterialakh. Budut obsuzhdat'sya razlichnye kollektivnye kvantovye effekty v takikh sistemakh, osoboe vnimanie budet udeleno vozmozhnosti sinkhronizatsii kvantovykh dinamicheskikh ostsillyatsii otdel'nykh kubitov.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 13, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P.D. Grigor'ev
Novyi mekhanizm rasseyaniya elektronov v magnitnom pole v sostoyanii s volnoi plotnosti v usloviyakh neideal'nogo nestinga

V sostoyanii s volnoi zaryadovoi ili spinovoi plotnosti v usloviyakh neideal'nogo nestinga chast' elektronnykh sostoyanii ostaetsya na urovne Fermi, chto sokhranyaet metallicheskuyu provodimost' obraztsa. Odnako poverkhnost' Fermi elektronov provodimosti v takom sostoyanii sil'no otlichaetsya ot iskhodnoi, potomu chto rasseyanie na vektor volny plotnosti privodit k perestroike poverkhnosti Fermi. Obychno eto soprovozhdaetsya vozniknoveniem novykh chastot magnitnykh kvantovykh ostsillyatsii, sootvetstvuyushchikh perestroennoi poverkhnosti Fermi. Odnako, v sil'nom magnitnom pole voznikaet magnitnyi proboi, kotoryi mozhet vosstanovit' dvizhenie elektronov po traektoriyam, sootvetstvuyushchim iskhodnoi poverkhnosti Fermi. Eto proiskhodit iz-za togo, chto rasstoyanie po energii mezhdu starymi i novymi elektronnymi traektoriyami okazyvaetsya malym, poryadka potentsiala rasseyaniya na volne plotnosti, to est' poryadka energeticheskoi shcheli volny plotnosti. Pri etom veroyatnost' elektronov dvigat'sya vdol' staroi ili novoi poverkhnosti Fermi eksponentsial'no zavisit ot velichiny etoi shcheli. Poetomu prostranstvennye fluktuatsii parametra poryadka volny plotnosti privodyat k prostranstvennym fluktuatsiyam veroyatnosti magnitnogo proboya, i v itoge k dopolnitel'nomu rasseyaniyu elektronov. Pri vysokoi kontsentratsii neodnorodnostei volny plotnosti etot novyi mekhanizm rasseyaniya elektronov provodimosti mozhet okazat'sya dostatochno sil'nym: sil'nee, chem rasseyanie na primesyakh. Etot mekhanizm mozhet privodit' k neobychnym effektam, takim kak sil'noe nemonotonnoe magnitosoprotivlenie, ili inversiya fazy magnitnykh kvantovykh ostsillyatsii. Imenno eto nablyudaetsya v razlichnykh organicheskikh metallakh, naprimer, v a-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4. Obsuzhdaetsya takzhe vozmozhnost' ispol'zovaniya etogo mekhanizma rasseyaniya dlya izmereniya fluktuatsii parametra poryadka volny plotnosti v vysokotemperaturnykh sverkhprovodnikakh.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 6, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
A.B. Shabat
Raznostnoe uravnenie Shredingera i kvazisimmetricheskie mnogochleny

Na model'nom uravnenii Shredingera s del'taobraznym potentsialom obsuzhdayutsya sushchestvennye otlichiya obratnoi zadachi rasseyaniya na vsei osi ot sluchaya poluosi. Ispol'zuetsya pri etom ekvivalentnost' rassmatrivaemoi model'noi zadachi diskretnoi tsepochke uravnenii s vzaimodeistviem blizhaishikh sosedei dostatochno obshchego vida. Ustanavlivayutsya takzhe yavnye formuly dlya funktsii Grina uravnenii Shredingera s del'taobraznymi potentsialami i issleduyutsya svoistva etikh funktsii Grina.

MIPT Interdisciplinary center for basic research: colloquium, Wednesday, March 4, 2015, MFTI, GK 113, 5:05 pm
M.E. Gershenzon (Rutgers University, USA)
Macroscopic Quantum Effects in Superconducting Circuits and Quantum Computing
Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, February 26, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Valerii Pavlovich Koshelets (Institut radiotekhniki i elektroniki RAN (IRE RAN), Moskva, Rossiya)
Issledovanie TGts spektrov izlucheniya Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 meza-struktur s
pomoshch'yu sverkhprovodnikovogo integral'nogo priemnika

V doklade predstavlena istoriya sozdaniya sverkhprovodnikovogo integral'nogo priemnika i dan kratkii obzor ego primenenii. Odnim iz takikh prilozhenii stalo issledovanie spektrov izlucheniya Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 meza-struktur v teragertsovom diapazone. Privedeny rezul'taty izmerenii, obsuzhdayutsya perspektivy sozdaniya kompaktnykh istochnikov teragertsovogo izlucheniya.

Theory seminar, Thursday, February 26, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
V.A. Khodel (Kurchatov Institute & Washington University)
Occurrence of flat bands in strongly correlated Fermi systems and high-Tc superconductivity of electron-doped compounds

We consider a class of strongly correlated Fermi systems that possess interaction-induced flat bands, pinned to the Fermi surface. We demonstrate that in such systems, the fundamental Landau equation, connecting the single-particle spectrum to the quasiparticle momentum distribution, fails. We propose a method, allowing to rectify drawbacks of Landau theory and, with the aid of the Pitaevskii identity, generalize equations obtained to apply the method to electron systems of solids. The emergent non-Fermi-liquid behavior, derived from the theory constructed, is compared with relevant experimental data on two-dimensional liquid He-3, heavy-fermion metals and electron-doped high-Tc compounds.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, February 20, 2015, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
S.V. Iordanskii
Vozniknovenie bol'shikh tokov v dvukhsloinykh geterostrukturakh
Theory seminar, Thursday, February 19, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
L. Levitov (MIT)
Topological Valley Currents in Gapped Dirac Materials

Gapped 2D Dirac materials, in which inversion symmetry is broken by a gap-opening perturbation, feature a unique valley transport regime. The system ground state hosts dissipationless persistent valley currents existing even when topologically protected edge modes are absent or when they are localized due to edge roughness. Topological valley currents in such materials are dominated by bulk currents produced by electronic states just beneath the gap rather than by edge modes. Dissipationless currents induced by an external bias are characterized by a quantized half-integer valley Hall conductivity. The under-gap currents dominate magnetization and the charge Hall effect in a light-induced valley-polarized state.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, February 12, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Sergei Vital'evich Shitov (IRE RAN & MISiS)
Sverkhprovodyashchie aktivnye metamaterialy dlya polucheniya izobrazheniya v teragertsovom diapazone

Razvitie metodov polucheniya izobrazheniya na SVCh i v oblasti dal'nego IK izlucheniya yavlyaetsya bystro rastushchei oblast'yu, ogranicheniem kotoroi na segodnya yavlyaetsya effektivnost' ustroistv schityvaniya. Predlozheno usovershenstvovat' sistemu schityvaniya s razdeleniem chastot dlya sverkhprovodyashchikh TES detektorov, otkazavshis' ot nabora SKVID-usilitelei v pol'zu odnogo shirokopolosnogo okhlazhdaemogo usilitelei SVCh na poluprovodnikakh, kotoryi mozhet obsluzhit' do 10 tysyach i bolee pikselei. Predlozheno nagruzit' mostikom TES vysokodobrotnyi SVCh rezonator, slabo svyazannyi s liniei peredachi, i registrirovat' otklik na chastote rezonansa v vide izmeneniya urovnya prokhozhdeniya, vyzvannogo razogrevom takogo mostika, analogichno MKID detektoram. Dannaya kontseptsiya byla proverena na mostikakh-prototipakh iz niobiya v diapazone temperatur 1-5 K, i bylo polucheno NEP = 2×10^{‑14} Vt/Gts^{0.5} pri kriticheskoi temperature plenok Tc=5 K v diapazone 600-700 GGts. Byla skonstruirovana metapoverkhnost' (matritsa), pozvolyayushchaya registrirovat' slabye signaly, a takzhe razrabotan printsip uvelicheniya razmernosti takoi matritsy.

S tsel'yu dal'neishego integrirovaniya tsepei priema (matritsy detektorov) i tsepei obrabotki signala (generatora nakachki i usilitelya), razrabatyvayutsya dva novykh aktivnykh metamateriala: dlya generatsii i usileniya signalov gigagertsovogo diapazona. Oba pribora osnovany na dvumernykh reshetkakh dzhozefsonovskikh kontaktov s parallel'no-posledovatel'nym vklyucheniem po postoyannomu toku, podstraivaemykh s pomoshch'yu magnitnogo polya. Sverkhprovodyashchii generator predstavlyaet soboi skhemu iz neshuntirovannykh tunnel'nykh dzhozefsonovskikh perekhodov, a usilitel', naoborot, iz shuntirovannykh kontaktov, imeyushchikh bezgisterezisnuyu VAKh. Dvukhmernye reshetki dopuskayut neogranichennoe uvelichenie sistemy, chto pozvolyaet uvelichit' diapazon moshchnosti signala, a takzhe optimizirovat' impedans. Detal'noe elektromagnitnoe modelirovanie pokazyvaet, chto generator sposoben rabotat' na chastotakh do 0,7 TGts s perestroikoi chastoty magnitnym polem okolo 2%, a usilitel' - s shumami u kvantovogo predela v diapazone chastot 8-12 GGts s usileniem okolo 10 dB.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, January 29, 2015, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Kupriyanov Mikhail Yur'evich (NIIYaF MGU)
Sverkhprovodnikovye spinovye ventili (Superconducting spin valves)

Rassmotreny osnovnye osobennosti effekta blizosti i effekta Dzhozefsona v strukturakh, sostoyashchikh iz sverkhprovodyashchikh, normal'nykh i ferromagnitnykh materialov. Dan kratkii obzor sovremennogo sostoyaniya issledovanii v oblasti razrabotki sverkhprovodnikovykh spinovykh ventilei. Obsuzhdeny vozmozhnye trudnosti prakticheskoi realizatsii takikh ustroistv.

Theory seminar, Thursday, January 29, 2015, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Vadim Khrapai (IFTT RAN)
Energeticheskii transport v sisteme vstrechnykh kraevykh kanalov i model' Lattinzhera

Budut predstavleny rezul'taty nedavnego eksperimenta [1] po izucheniyu neravnovesnykh potokov energii mezhdu vstrechnymi kraevymi kanalami v rezhime kvantovogo effekta Kholla. Sistema iz dvukh takikh kanalov, razvyazannykh gal'vanicheski, no vzaimodeistvuyushchikh posredstvom kulonovskikh sil, yavlyaetsya pryamym analogom besspinovoi zhidkosti Lattinzhera [2] i ideal'no podkhodit dlya izucheniya energeticheskogo transporta. Original'nyi bolometricheskii podkhod k izmereniyu izbytochnogo potoka energii P v kraevom kanale pozvolil issledovat' zavisimosti P ot tyanushchego napryazheniya i protyazhennosti otrezka lattinzherovskoi zhidkosti. Pokazano, chto protsess peredachi energii kolichestvenno soglasuetsya s kontseptsiei uprugogo rasseyaniya kollektivnykh vozbuzhdenii plotnosti na granichnykh tochkakh lattinzherovskogo otrezka, pri etom imeetsya vozmozhnost' nepreryvnogo kontrolya parametra vzaimodeistviya i veroyatnosti rasseyaniya. Literatura: [1] M.G. Prokudina, S. Ludwig, V. Pellegrini, L. Sorba, G. Biasiol, V.S. Khrapai, Tunable non-equilibrium Luttinger liquid based on counter-propagating edge channels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216402 (2014). [2] Yuval Oreg and Alexander M. Finkel'stein, Interedge Interaction in the Quantum Hall Effect, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3668 (1995).

Seminar v ITF, Friday, January 9, 2015, ITF, 11:00 am
Y. Asano (Hokkaido University, Japan)
Odd-frequency Cooper Pairs

The concept of the odd-frequency Cooper pairs was first proposed by Berezinskii in 1974 to describe superfluidity of 3He [1]. Although the odd-frequency superconductivity has never been confirmed in any materials, the odd-frequency pairs appear as the subdominant pairing correlation in various proximity structures such as superconductor / ferromagnet (SF) junctions [2] and normal-metal / superconductor (NS) junctions with unconventional pairing symmetry [3]. In the presentation, we explain what the odd-frequency pairs are, how they appear in such proximity structure, how to detect them, and how they are different from usual even-frequency pairs in the bulk. We first discuss the enhancement of the quasiparticle density of states at the zero-energy [2,4-5] and its influence on the low-energy electric transport [6]. Next we show the paramagnetic property of odd-frequency pairs [7-10] which can be confirmed in the surface impedance measurement at low temperature [11]. We also discuss a relation to the Majorana physics [12-13]. Finally we explain why such unusual pairs appear in inhomogeneous superconducting systems [14].

[1] V. L. Berezinskii, JETP Lett. 20, 287 (1974).
[2] F. S. Bergeret, A. F. Volkov, and K. B. Efetov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4096 (2001) [3] Y. Tanaka and A. A. Golubov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 037003 (2007).
[4] Y. Asano, Y. Tanaka, and A. A. Golubov, Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 107002 (2007).
[5] T. Kontos, et. al. Phys. Rev. Let. 86, 304 (2001).
[6] Y. Asano, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 067005 (2007).
[7] H. Walter, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3598 (1998).
[8] S. Higashitani, J. phys. soc. Jpn., 66, 2556 (1997).
[9] S.-I. Suzuki and Y. Asano, Phys. Rev. B 89, 184508 (2014).
[10] Y. Tanaka, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 140503(R) (2005).
[11] Y. Asano, et. al,, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 087001 (2011).
[12] Y. Asano and Y. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. B 87, 104513 (2013).
[13] S. Ikegaya, Y. Asano, and Y. Tanaka, arXiv: 1411.3438
[14] Y. Asano, Y. V. Fominov, Y. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. B 90, 094512 (2014).

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, January 9, 2015, ITF, 11:00 am
Yasuhiro Asano (Hokkaido University, Japan)
Odd-frequency Cooper Pairs

The concept of the odd-frequency Cooper pairs was first proposed by Berezinskii in 1974 to describe superfluidity of 3He [1]. Although the odd-frequency superconductivity has never been confirmed in any materials, the odd-frequency pairs appear as the subdominant pairing correlation in various proximity structures such as superconductor / ferromagnet (SF) junctions [2] and normal-metal / superconductor (NS) junctions with unconventional pairing symmetry [3]. In the presentation, we explain what the odd-frequency pairs are, how they appear in such proximity structure, how to detect them, and how they are different from usual even-frequency pairs in the bulk. We first discuss the enhancement of the quasiparticle density of states at the zero-energy [2,4-5] and its influence on the low-energy electric transport [6]. Next we show the paramagnetic property of odd-frequency pairs [7-10] which can be confirmed in the surface impedance measurement at low temperature [11]. We also discuss a relation to the Majorana physics [12-13]. Finally we explain why such unusual pairs appear in inhomogeneous superconducting systems [14].

[1] V. L. Berezinskii, JETP Lett. 20, 287 (1974). [2] F. S. Bergeret, A. F. Volkov, and K. B. Efetov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4096 (2001) [3] Y. Tanaka and A. A. Golubov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 037003 (2007). [4] Y. Asano, Y. Tanaka, and A. A. Golubov, Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 107002 (2007). [5] T. Kontos, et. al. Phys. Rev. Let. 86, 304 (2001). [6] Y. Asano, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 067005 (2007). [7] H. Walter, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3598 (1998). [8] S. Higashitani, J. phys. soc. Jpn., 66, 2556 (1997). [9] S.-I. Suzuki and Y. Asano, Phys. Rev. B 89, 184508 (2014). [10] Y. Tanaka, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 140503(R) (2005). [11] Y. Asano, et. al,, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 087001 (2011). [12] Y. Asano and Y. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. B 87, 104513 (2013). [13] S. Ikegaya, Y. Asano, and Y. Tanaka, arXiv: 1411.3438 [14] Y. Asano, Y. V. Fominov, Y. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. B 90, 094512 (2014).

V.V.Shmidt superconductivity seminar, Thursday, December 25, 2014, MISIS, main building B-636, 3:00 pm
A.V.Ustinov (zaveduyushchii kafedroi fiziki Tekhnologicheskogo Instituta Karlsrue, Germaniya; zaveduyushchii laboratoriei «Svekhprovodyashchie metamaterialy» NITU «MISiS»)
Kvantovoe tunnelirovanie i termicheskaya aktivatsiya v SKVIDe

Izvestno, chto klassicheskii ob'ekt, nakhodyashchiisya v metastabil'noi potentsial'noi yame, ne mozhet pokinut' ee pri nulevoi temperature. Kvantovyi zhe ob'ekt mozhet tunnelirovat' iz takoi yamy dazhe pri nulevoi temperature. Voznikaet vopros, chto zhe proizoidet, esli kvantovaya stepen' svobody mozhet sochetat'sya s klassicheskoi stepen'yu svobody? Dannyi vopros byl teoreticheski rassmotren v rabote [1] dlya sluchaya slaboi svyazi mezhdu dvumya stepenyami svobody. Avtory obnaruzhili, chto tunnelirovanie kvantovomekhanicheskoi stepeni svobody menyaet potentsial klassicheskoi peremennoi, chto pozvolyaet takomu ob'ektu pokinut' metastabil'nuyu yamu. Etot effekt napominaet istoriyu o Barone Myunkhgauzene, kotoryi utverzhdal, chto vytashchil sebya i svoyu loshad' iz tryasiny, poetomu takoe teoreticheskoe predskazanie povedeniya bylo nazvano «effektom Myunkhgauzena» [1]. My popytalis' realizovat' predlozhennuyu sistemu shuntirovaniem odnogo iz dvukh perekhodov PT-SKVIDa dopolnitel'noi emkost'yu. V nashikh opytakh byla obnaruzhena svyaz' mezhdu kvantovymi i klassicheskimi protsessami pokidaniya yamy, chto svyazano s napravleniem dvizheniya v prostranstve energii. Bylo obnaruzheno, chto pri izmenenii vneshnego magnitnogo potoka makroskopicheskoe kvantovoe tunnelirovanie periodicheski smenyaetsya termoaktivirovannym vykhodom [2], chto yavlyaetsya priznakom «effekta Myunkhgauzena».

[1] A. U. Thomann, V. B. Geshkenbein and G. Blatter, Phys. Rev. B 79, 184515 (2009). [2] S. Butz, A.K. Feofanov, K.G. Fedorov, H. Rotzinger, A.U. Thomann, B. Mackrodt, R. Dolata, V.B. Geshkenbein, G. Blatter, and A.V. Ustinov, arXiv: 1404.3602 (2014), to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. in December 2014.


Na seminar priglashayutsya vse zhelayushchie. Propusk slushatelei seminara, ne yavlyayushchikhsya studentami, aspirantami ili sotrudnikami NITU «MISiS», budet osushchestvlyat'sya pri pred'yavlenii pasporta pri uslovii predvaritel'noi zapisi na seminar po ssylke (do 14:00 dnya seminara).

Seminar 25 dekabrya 2014 g. (15:00) sostoitsya v Auditorii – B-636 (glavnyi korpus) NITU «MISiS», 6 etazh.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, December 19, 2014, ITF, 3:00 pm
E. J. Koenig (Karlsruhe)
Half-integer quantum Hall effect of disordered Dirac fermions at a topological insulator surface

The unconventional (half-integer) quantum Hall effect for a single species of Dirac fermions is analyzed. In the introduction I will discuss experimental measurements of the half-integer Hall conductance g_{xy} of topological insulator surface states and unveil its field theoretical origin. For the calculation of the conductivity tensor, the following two step procedure is applied. In the first step, semiclassical transport coefficients are derived in the case of both orbital and Zeeman coupling to an external magnetic field. In this context, I plan to give a pedagogic review of the modified Boltzmann transport theory for the anomalous Hall effect. The semiclassical conductivity tensor serves as input parameters for the second step: It consists in the renormalization group treatment of the appropriately modified non-linear sigma model and thus accounts for localization effects. The resulting phase diagram (levitation scenario) will also be discussed in this context. If time permits, I will further explain how to reconcile Laughlin's flux insertion argument with half-integer Hall conductance and/or present the calculation of the current density beyond linear response in the limit of smooth scalar potential.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 19, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Azat Sharafutdinov
Spin susceptibility and tunneling density of states in quantum dots

Detal'no issledovany staticheskie prodol'nye i dinamicheskie poperechnye spinovye vospriimchivosti v kvantovykh tochek i nanochastitsakh v ramkakh gamil'toniana, kotoryi yavlyaetsya rasshireniem universal'nogo gamil'toniana na sluchai odnoosnogo anizotropnogo obmena. Dlya predel'nykh sluchaev obmennogo vzaimodeistviya tipa Izinga i Geizenberga, izucheno kak fluktuatsii odnochastichnykh urovnei energii vliyayut na stounerovskuyu neustoichivost' v kvantovykh tochkakh. Okazyvaetsya, chto v rezhime sil'nykh fluktuatsii zadacha svoditsya k zadache o statistike ekstremumov nekotorogo gaussovskogo protsessa. Dokazano, chto, nesmotrya na sil'nye fluktuatsii odnochastichnykh urovnei energii, spinovaya vospriimchivost' i vse ee momenty raskhodyatsya odnovremenno v tochke, kotoraya opredelyaetsya s pomoshch'yu standartnogo kriteriya neustoichivosti Stounera s uchastiem tol'ko srednego rasstoyanie mezhdu odnochastichnymi urovnyami energii. Takzhe issledovano povedenie tunnel'noi plotnosti sostoyanii v sluchae anizotropnogo obmena. Pokazano, chto predskazannoe v rabote Y. Gefen, M. Kiselev, PRL96, 066805 (2006) nemonotonnoe (s dvumya maksimumami i minimumom) povedenie tunnel'noi plotnosti sostoyanii, kak funktsii energii, na samom dele ne sushchestvuet. Podrobno, nashi rezul'taty predstavleny v sleduyushchikh rabotakh: 1. D.S. Lyubshin, A.U. Sharafutdinov, I.S. Burmistrov, «Statistics of spin fluctuations in quantum dots with Ising exchange», Phys. Rev. B 89, 201304(R ) (2014). 2. A.U. Sharafutdinov, D.S. Lyubshin, I.S. Burmistrov, «Spin fluctuations in quantum dots», Phys. Rev. B 90, 195308 (2014). 3. A.U. Sharafutdinov, I.S. Burmistrov, «Tunneling density of states in quantum dots with anisotropic exchange», gotovitsya k otpravke v pechat'.

Theory seminar, Thursday, December 18, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
G.B. Lesovik
Shumy i statistika perenosa elektronov v kvantovykh provodnikakh pri nalichii peremennykh polei i vozmozhnosti sozdaniya odnochastichnykh izolirovannykh vozbuzhdenii

V pervoi chasti doklada budet sdelan nebol'shoi obzor teoreticheskikh rabot po shumam i statistike perenosa v tselom. Zatem obsudim teoreticheskie raboty, v kotorykh byli opisany vozmozhnosti sozdaniya odnochastichnykh izolirovannykh vozbuzhdenii (govorya bolee tochno, vozbuzhdeniya neobychnoi pary elektron-dyrka pri pomoshchi impul'sa vektornogo potentsiala lorentsevskoi formy), ne zaputannykh za fermi more. Vo vtoroi chasti budet obsuzhdat'sya eksperiment gruppy Glattli (opublikovano v 2013 g., Nature), v kotorom anonsirovano nablyudenie sootvetstvuyushchikh vozbuzhdenii. Budut izlozheny argumenty v pol'zu togo, chto v etom eksperimente usloviya dlya sozdaniya sootvetstvuyushchikh vozbuzhdenii (i ikh registratsii) ne vypolnyayutsya. Tem ne menee v eksperimente opredelenno nablyudalos' drugoe yavlenie, svyazannoe s katastrofoi ortogonal'nosti dlya fermi morya, pri opredelennykh formakh impul'sa.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, December 12, 2014, ITF, 3:00 pm
I. V. Zagorodnev (IRE RAN)
O vozmozhnykh spektrakh poverkhnostnykh sostoyanii v 2D i 3D topologicheskikh izolyatorakh

Obychno schitaetsya, chto v topologicheskikh izolyatorakh (TI) spektr poverkhnostnykh sostoyanii imeet besshchelevoi lineinyi (ul'trarelyativistskii) spektr v tsentre zony Brillyuena. Takoi spektr deistvitel'no poluchaetsya v prosteishikh modelyakh pri ispol'zovanii “otkrytykh granichnykh uslovii” (open boundary conditions) [X.-L. Qi, S.-C. Zhang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057 (2011)], t.e. granichnykh uslovii zanulyayushchikh volnovuyu funktsiyu na granitse. Odnako, izvestno, chto effektivnaya volnovaya funktsiya, opisyvayushchaya elektrony v kristalle, ne obyazana zanulyat'sya na granitse [E.L. Ivchenko “Optical Spectrosopy of Semiconductor Nanostructires”, Alpha Science, Harrow, UK (2005) i ssylki v nei]. Teoriya TI, a tochnee “printsip sootvetstviya granitsa-ob'em” (bulk boundary correspondence) predskazyvaet nalichie kraevykh sostoyanii v ob'emnoi shcheli, no ne sam spektr, kotoryi dolzhen zaviset' ot svoistv i mikrostruktury poverkhnosti, chto ne uchityvaetsya otkrytymi granichnymi usloviyami. V nashei rabote arXiv:1407.0945 byli proanalizirovany vozmozhnye granichnye usloviya v 2D TI na osnove kvantovykh yam CdHgTe i v 3D TI Bi2Se3. Pokazano, chto poverkhnostnye sostoyaniya mogut imet' sushchestvenno ne lineinyi spektr ili vovse otsutstvovat' v tsentre zony Brillyuena.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 12, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Ya.V. Fominov
Dva tipa nechetnoi po chastote sverkhprovodimosti

Printsip Pauli privodit k antisimmetrii anomal'noi funktsii Grina, opisyvayushchei sverkhprovodimost', pri perestanovke koordinat elektronov. Polnyi nabor koordinat vklyuchaet v sebya, pomimo prostranstvennykh koordinat i proektsii spinov, takzhe i vremya. V matsubarovskom predstavlenii funktsiya Grina, v printsipe, mozhet byt' nechetnoi po chastote, chto bylo otmecheno Berezinskim. Zatem teoreticheski bylo pokazano, chto nechetnye po chastote sverkhprovodyashchie korrelyatsii mogut voznikat' v neodnorodnykh kontaktakh sverkhprovodnikov i ferromagnetikov kak subdominantnye komponenty vblizi granitsy. Neobychnoi osobennost'yu takogo sostoyaniya yavlyaetsya "paramagnitnyi" (protivopolozhnyi obychnomu) znak svyazi mezhdu vektornym potentsialom i sverkhtokom (anomal'nyi effekt Meissnera). V ob'emnom sverkhprovodnike takoe sostoyanie bylo by neustoichivym. Nedavno neskol'kimi gruppami byla predlozhena vozmozhnost' realizatsii ob'emnogo nechetnogo po chastote sverkhprovodyashchego sostoyaniya s obychnym diamagnitnym meissnerovskim otklikom. V doklade budut obsuzhdeny fizicheskie sledstviya takogo predpolozheniya.

Shmidtovskii seminar po sverkhprovodimosti, Thursday, December 11, 2014, MISiS, auditoriya B-636 (glavnyi korpus),, 3:00 pm
Kuz'min Leonid Sergeevich (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NSTU, N. Novgorod; SINP, MSU, Moscow)
Sverkhprovodyashchii Bolometr na Kholodnykh Elektronakh: Fizika i Primeneniya

Predlozhena novaya kontseptsiya Bolometra na Kholodnykh Elektronakh (BKhE) dlya sverkhchuvstvitel'nogo priema radioastronomicheskikh signalov. V etom bolometre realizovan effekt pryamogo elektronnogo okhlazhdeniya absorbera, chto pozvolyaet uluchshit' shumovye svoistva i rasshirit' dinamicheskii diapazon bolometra po sravneniyu s bolometrami na krayu sverkhprovodyashchego perekhoda. BKhE okazalsya nechuvstvitel'nym k kosmicheskim lucham iz-za malosti ob'ema nanoabsorbera i printsipial'noi razvyazki elektronnoi i fononnoi sistem. V rezul'tate interes k BKhE rezko vozros dlya primenenii v kosmicheskikh i ballonnykh proektakh.

Vtoroi original'noi kontseptsiei, predlozhennoi dlya realizatsii v evropeiskikh kosmicheskikh proektakh, yavlyaetsya Rezonansnyi Bolometr na Kholodnykh Elektronakh (RBKhE), ispol'zuyushchii vnutrennii nanofil'tr iz kineticheskoi induktivnosti sverkhprovodyashchei poloski i emkosti tunnel'nogo perekhoda. Stimuliruyushchei prichinoi dlya izobreteniya RBKhE yavilsya zapros Evropeiskogo Kosmicheskogo Agenstva na sovmeshchenie v odnom piksele dvukh i bolee chastot dlya umen'sheniya razmera fokal'noi ploskosti i sravneniya signalov raznykh chastot.

Budet obsuzhdeno primenenie etikh kontseptsii v ballonnykh i kosmicheskikh proektakh.

Na seminar priglashayutsya vse zhelayushchie. Propusk slushatelei seminara, ne yavlyayushchikhsya studentami, aspirantami ili sotrudnikami NITU «MISiS», budet osushchestvlyat'sya pri pred'yavlenii pasporta pri uslovii predvaritel'noi zapisi na seminar po ssylke (do 14:00 dnya seminara).

Seminar 11 dekabrya 2014 g. (15:00) sostoitsya v Auditorii – B-636 (glavnyi korpus) NITU «MISiS», 6 etazh.

MIPT Interdisciplinary center for basic research: colloquium, Wednesday, December 10, 2014, MFTI, GK 113, 5:00 pm
Leonid Levitov (MIT)
Atomnyi kollaps v grafene

Budet rassmotreno odno iz interesnykh yavlenii - atomnyi kollaps, predstavlyayushchii soboi spontannoe rozhdenie elektron-pozitronnykh par v sil'nykh elektricheskikh polyakh vblizi sverkhtyazhelykh atomnykh yader. Dokladchik podrobno rasskazhet o simmetriinykh aspektakh kollapsa, svyazannykh s anomal'nym narusheniem masshtabnoi invariantnosti, a takzhe o pervom nablyudenie etogo yavleniya v 2013 godu.

Podrobnaya informatsiya

Ob'yavlenie o doklade na saite FOPF

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, December 5, 2014, ITF, 3:00 pm
V. V. Sivak, A. S. Ioselevich
"Polzuchaya" provodimost' i relaksatsiya v sisteme metallicheskikh granul

My rassmatrivaem sistemu provodnikov, pomeshchennykh v dielektricheskuyu matritsu. Matritsa ne predpolagaetsya sovershenno zhestkoi (naprimer, eto mozhet byt' zhidkost'), poetomu tolshchiny dielektricheskikh zazorov mezhdu provodnikami fluktuiruyut vo vremeni i inogda provodniki mogut soprikasat'sya. V takie momenty voznikaet "proboi" i zaryad legko peretekaet mezhdu paroi soprikosnuvshikhsya provodnikov. Protsess perenosa zaryada za schet proboev, voznikayushchikh v sluchainye momenty v sluchainykh mestakh, my nazvali polzuchei provodimost'yu. My rassmatrivaem kak trekhmernye, tak i nizkorazmernye massivy provodnikov i issleduem rastekanie zaryada, pervonachal'no sosredotochennogo na odnom provodnike, provodimost' na postoyannom toke, fluktuatsii zaryadov na provodnikakh i ikh prostranstvenno-vremennuyu korrelyatsiyu.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, December 5, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Boris Fain, Skolkovskii Institut Nauki i Tekhnologii
Obrashchaya khaos vspyat'

Ponyatie "khaos" chasto upominaetsya v kontekste osnov statisticheskoi fiziki. V to zhe vremya, do sikh por ne do kontsa yasno, chto nazyvat' khaosom v mnogochastichnykh kvantovykh sistemakh. Sushchestvuet rasprostranennoe mnenie, chto povedenie kvantovykh sistem yavlyaetsya klassicheski khaotichnym v makroskopicheskom predele na fizicheski nablyudaemykh (t.e. ne slishkom dlinnykh) vremenakh. V etom doklade budet pokazano, chto, dazhe v makroskopicheskom predele i na fizicheski nablyudaemykh vremenakh, tipichnye neintegriruemye sistemy vzaimodeistvushchikh kvantovykh spinov ne obladayut opredelyayushchim svoistvom klassicheskogo khaosa, a imenno, eksponentsial'moi chuvstvitel'nost'yu k malym vozmushcheniyam. Etot rezul'tat poluchen putem sravneniya povedeniya sistem klassicheskikh i kvantovykh spinov v otvet na nepolnoe obrashchenie spinovoi dinamiki vo vremeni. Takoe obrashchenie vo vremeni izvestno v statisticheskoi fizike kak "Loshmidtovskoe ekho" i realizuemo metodami yadernogo magnitnogo rezonansa kak "magicheskoe ekho". V poslednem sluchae, otsutstvie eksponentsial'noi chuvstvitel'nosti k malym vozmushcheniyam dolzhno byt' eksperimental'no nablyudaemo. [B. V. Fine, T. A. Elsayed, C. M. Kropf, and A. S. de Wijn, Phys. Rev. E 89, 012923 (2014)]

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, November 28, 2014, ITF, 3:00 pm
Lev Ioffe
Nonergodicity and many body localization in Josephson junction chains
Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, November 28, 2014, Landau Institute, 12:00 pm
K.S. Tikhonov, M.V. Feigel’man
Admittance of a long diffusive SNS junction

Issledovany dinamicheskie svoistva SNS perekhoda s zadannoi raznost'yu faz sverkhprovodnikov na dvukh beregakh pod deistviem slabogo vysokochastotnogo vneshnego napryazheniya. Ispol'zovan glavnym obrazom analiticheskii metod, osnovannyi na reshenii nestatsionarnogo uravneniya Uzadelya, okonchatel'nye vychisleniya provedeny chislenno. Vychislena veshchestvennaya i mnimaya chasti lineinoi vysokochastotnoi provodimosti Y(ω) kak funktsii staticheskoi raznosti faz φ pri proizvol'nom sootnoshenii mezhdu chastotoi ω, temperaturoi T, energiei Taulesa ETh, no predpolagaya, chto vse eti velichiny maly po sravneniyu so shchel'yu Δ v spektre sverkhprovodnika. Poluchennye rezul'taty nakhodyatsya v khoroshem soglasii s eksperimentom.
[Napravleno v Phys. Rev. B., oktyabr' (2014)]

V.V.Shmidt superconductivity seminar, Thursday, November 27, 2014, MISIS, 3:00 pm
A.A.Golubov, MIPT and University of Twente (the Netherlands)
Fazo-chuvstvitel'nye eksperimenty po opredeleniyu simmetrii parametra poryadka v sverkhprovodyashchikh ferropniktidakh

Sformulirovana teoreticheskaya model' dlya opisaniya kontaktov mezhdu obychnymi nizkotemperaturnymi sverkhprovodnikami i sverkhprovodyashchimi materialami na osnove ferropniktidov, v kotorykh predskazana vozmozhnaya realizatsiya nefononnogo mekhanizma sverkhprovodyashchego sparivaniya. Obsuzhdaetsya rol' primesnogo rasseyaniya, v chastnosti, vozmozhnost' fazovogo perekhoda mezhdu razlichnymi simmetriinymi sostoyaniyami parametra poryadka v zavisimosti ot sily rasseyaniya. Obsuzhdayutsya vozmozhnye fazo-chuvstvitel'nye eksperimenty po opredeleniyu simmetrii parametra poryadka, kotorye pozvolyat opredelit' mekhanizm sverkhprovodyashchego sparivaniya s dannykh materialakh. Eksperimenty osnovany na ispol'zovanii Dzhozefsonovskikh kontaktov mezhdu obychnymi sverkhprovodnikami i sverkhprovodyashchimi materialami na osnove ferropniktidov. Sformulirovany usloviya na parametry , kotorye pozvolyat proizvesti takie eksperimenty.

----------------------- Na seminar priglashayutsya vse zhelayushchie. Propusk slushatelei seminara, ne yavlyayushchikhsya studentami, aspirantami ili sotrudnikami NITU «MISiS», budet osushchestvlyat'sya pri pred'yavlenii pasporta pri uslovii predvaritel'noi zapisi na seminar po ssylke (do 14:00 dnya seminara).

Seminar 27 noyabrya 2014 g. (15:00) sostoitsya v Auditorii – B-636 (glavnyi korpus) NITU «MISiS», 6 etazh.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, November 21, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
Daniil Antonenko
Kvantovyi effekt Kholla v grafene

Obzor rabot

Nature 505, 528 (2014) Tunable symmetry breaking and helical edge transport in a graphene quantum spin Hall state, A F Young, J D Sanchez-Yamagishi, B Hunt, S H Choi, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, R C Ashoori and P Jarlillo-Herrero,

Nat Phys 8, 550 (2012) Spin and valley quantum Hall ferromagnetism in graphene, A F Young, C R Dean, L Wang, H Ren, P Cadden-Zimansky, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, J Hone, K L Shepard and P Kim

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Thursday, November 20, 2014, Kaptiza Institute, 11:30 am
K. S. Tikhonov
Obzor nedavnikh rabot po mnogochastichnoi lokalizatsii
Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, November 14, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
Eslam Khalaf (MPI FKF Stuttgart)
Localization at the edge of a 2D topological insulator

We study transport via edge modes of a 2D topological insulator. Topological protection prevents complete localization of the edge states; however, quantum interference effects are still relevant for the transport properties at finite length scales. We mainly focus on the two most experimentally relevant cases: (i) a junction between two quantum Hall insulators with different filling factors and hence an imbalance in the number of right- and left-propagating modes (symmetry class A) and (ii) a relatively thick HgTe quantum well in the insulating state with an arbitrary number of edge modes (symmetry class AII). We derive the distribution of transmission probabilities as a function of the distance between leads. This allows us to demonstrate topological effects in the average conductance and the shot noise of the setup. We also consider mesoscopic fluctuations and compute the variance of conductance. This quantity is strongly influenced by topology in the quantum Hall case. All the calculations are carried out assuming localization effects are weak, i.e., in the short length limit. Technically, this amounts to studying 1D non-linear sigma model with a proper topological term and source fields on the semiclassical level. Remarkably, the semiclassical limit of the 1D sigma model can be exactly mapped onto a fully quantum 0D sigma model of a different symmetry class. This allows us to identify the distribution of transmission probabilities with the spectrum of a certain random matrix.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, November 14, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
P. M. Ostrovsky
Density of states in a two-dimensional chiral metal with vacancies

We study quantum interference effects in a two-dimensional chiral metal (bipartite lattice) with vacancies. We demonstrate that randomly distributed vacancies constitute a peculiar type of chiral disorder leading to strong modifications of critical properties at zero energy as compared to conventional chiral metals. In particular, the average density of states diverges as ρ ~ E-1 |lnE|-3/2 and the correlation length Lc ~ |lnE| in the limit E→0. When the average density of vacancies is different in the two sublattices, a finite concentration of zero modes emerges and a gap in the quasiclassical density of states opens around zero energy. Interference effects smear this gap resulting in exponentially small tails at low energies.

V.V.Shmidt superconductivity seminar, Thursday, November 13, 2014, MISIS, 3:00 pm
E.V.Il'ichev, group head at Quantum detection laboratory, Institute of Photonic technology , Jena, Germany
Superconducting detectors

V pervoi chasti doklada budut predstavleny printsipy raboty i osnovnye kharakteristiki sverkhprovodyashchikh detektorov, takikh kak bolometry i SKVIDy. Budut obsuzhdat'sya nekotorye napravleniya, v kotorykh sverkhprovodyashchie datchiki nashli shirokoe primenenie.

Vtoraya chast' doklada budet posvyashchena original'nym rezul'tatam, poluchennym gruppoi, kotoroi rukovodit avtor. Oni osnovany na uzkom raspredelenii pereklyuchenii neshuntirovannogo dzhozefsonovskogo tunnel'nogo kontakta iz sostoyaniya s nulevym napryazheniem v sostoyanie s konechnym napryazheniem pri temperaturakh nizhe 1 K. Takoe povedenie kontakta mozhet byt' ispol'zovano dlya realizatsii sverkhchuvstvitel'nykh detektorov v gigagertsovom diapazone. Budut predstavleny teoreticheskie otsenki i pervye eksperimental'nye dannye.

Theory seminar, Thursday, October 30, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Andrei Golov (School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, UK)
Dissipation of turbulence in superfluid 4He in the limit of zero temperature

We will review Manchester experiments on quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He generated by various means. The main focus is on the limit of zero temperatures, in which the turbulence is fully represented by tangled quantized vortex lines. In this regime, the dynamics of the vortex lines span length scales from the size of container to nearly atomic scale, at which energy is transmitted to phonons. A quantum cascade of energy, involving individual quantized vortex lines (and hence, having no analogs in classical turbulence), is necessary for the energy of large-scale flow to be transferred to the dissipative short scales. The processes maintaining the cascade are believed to be: hydrodynamic interactions of vortex lines, reconnections of vortex lines, interaction of excitations such as small vortex loops and Kelvin waves on vortex lines. The dissipative length scale can be increased (i.e. the quantum cascade curtailed) by increasing temperature above 0.4 K due to the scattering of thermal excitations by vortex lines. Three different means of generating turbulence will be discussed (each having an analog in classical turbulence, thus allowing comparison with classical results): (a) With the towed grid, we produce turbulence that is nearly homogeneous and isotropic. Studying the free decay allows the rate of dissipation to be quantified [6]. (b) An unsteady rotation of a square-shaped container allows to create anisotropic turbulence — that decays more slowly [1,5,6]. In the presence of the steady background rotation, the following phenomena are observed: steady polarization of vortex lines, non-zero threshold for turbulence onset, resonances of inertial waves [4]. (c) With an immersed jet of variable duration and intensity (created by a current of injected electrons), a cross-over from ultraquantum («non-structured» or «Vinen») turbulence to quasiclassical («structured» or «Kolmogorov») turbulence is observed [2,3]. (References: [1] P. M. Walmsley, A. I. Golov, H. E. Hall, A. A. Levchenko and W. F. Vinen, Dissipation of quantum turbulence in the zero-temperature limit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265302 (2007). [2] P. M. Walmsley and A. I. Golov, Quantum and quasiclassical types of superfluid turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 245301 (2008). [3] A. I. Golov, P. M. Walmsley, P. Tompsett, Charged Tangles of Quantized Vortices in Superfluid 4He, J. Low Temp. Phys. 161, 509-525 (2010). [4] P. M. Walmsley and A. I. Golov, Rotating quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He in the T=0 limit, Phys. Rev. B 86, 060518(RC) (2012). [5] Paul Walmsley, Dmitry Zmeev, Fatemeh Pakpour, and Andrei Golov, Dynamics of quantum turbulence of different spectra, PNAS 111 (Supplement 1) 4691-4698 (2014). [6] D. E. Zmeev, P. M. Walmsley, A. I. Golov, P. V. E. McClintock, S. N. Fisher, and W. F. Vinen, Turbulence in superfluid 4He generated by various means (in preparation).)

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, October 24, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
Tat'yana Golikova (IFTT)
Effekt blizosti i kogerentnye yavleniya v gibridnykh strukturakh sverkhprovodnik-normal'nyi metall-ferromagnetik

Rabota posvyashchena izgotovleniyu submikronnykh planarnykh S-N-S dzhozefsonovskikh kontaktov, planarnykh gibridnykh struktur na osnove sverkhprovodnika, normal'nogo metalla i ferromagnetika, eksperimental'nomu issledovaniyu osobennostei effekta blizosti i sverkhprovodyashchego transporta cherez takie struktury, realizatsii S-(N/F)-S - dzhozefsonovskogo kontakta s ferromagnitnym monodomennym podsloem (F), issledovaniyu vliyaniya ferromagnitnogo podsloya na parnyi i kvazichastichnyi transport cherez dzhozefsonovskii S-(N/F)-S kontakt, izucheniyu nelokal'nykh neravnovesnykh effektov v mnogoterminal'nykh SNS strukturakh, svyazannykh s inzhektsiei kvazichastits v odin iz beregov dzhozefsonovskogo S-N-S kontakta.

Theory seminar, Thursday, October 23, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
V.M. Pudalov (LPI)
Electron-electron interaction effects in monotonic and oscillatory magnetotransport in 2D electron systems

Studying the oscillatory magnetorestance in crossed fields, we found that the product (m*TD) that determines damping of quantum oscillations, to the first approximation is equal in the majority and minority subbands even though the spin polarization degree amounts to about 66%. This result confirms theory predictions that the interaction takes place at high energies > EF rather than within narrow strip of energies EF ± T. To the next approximation, we revealed a difference in the damping factor of the two spin subbands, which causes skewness of the oscillation lineshape. The difference, quantified with the skew factor can be as high as 20%. The skew factor decreases as B or temperature grow, or B decreases; for low electron densities and high in-plane field the skew factor even changes sign. In contrast to the conventional theory, the product (m*TD) varies with perpendicular field and (nonmonotonically) with temperature. These dependencies explain notable scattering of the m*(n) values experimentally obtained under assumption of the T-independent (m*TD).

The monotonic magnetoconductance in the in-plane field δσ(B,T) was found to scales in a sharp contrast to the theory predictions: whereas below a density dependent temperature T<T* it scales as theory predicted, (B2/T), at higher temperatures T>T*, it scales as (B2/T2). The latter dependence, hence, mimics the behavior anticipated for the low-temperature diffusive regime of interaction. These functional dependencies are at odd with interaction quantum corrections. The crossover temperature T*(n) correlates well with the inflection point at the strong σ(T) dependence in zero field, inherent for high mobility samples. Our data thus point at the existence of an energy scale T* beyond the EF. The results also call in question the previous attempts to exploit the parallel field MR as a tool to determine Fermi liquid coupling constants, F0a and γ2, and to plot the two-parameter phase diagrams for interacting and disordered 2D electron systems.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, October 10, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
Igor' Gornyi
Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, October 10, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Alexander Shnirman (KIT), Yuval Gefen, Arijit Saha, Igor S. Burmistrov, Mikhail N. Kiselev, Alexander Altland
Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön theory for a collective spin: geometric Langevin noise

We consider small ferromagnetic particles or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Sch\"on effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.

Theory seminar, Thursday, October 9, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Leonid Pryadko (Kaliforniiskii Universitet, Riversaid)
Kvantovye nizkoplotnostnye kody i nelokal'nye spinovye modeli

Lokal'nost' — odin iz osnovopolagayushchikh printsipov postroeniya fizicheskikh modelei. Tak, v modeli Izinga, kazhdyi chlen v gamil'toniane mozhet sootvetstvovat' svyazi mezhdu blizhaishimi sosedyami na zadannoi reshetke. Chto poluchitsya esli uslovie lokal'nosti opustit'? Ya otvechu na etot vopros na primere neuporyadochennykh spinovykh modelei opisyvayushchikh protseduru dekodirovaniya kvantovykh nizkoplotnostnykh kodov. Takim obrazom mogut byt' polucheny kak traditsionnye lokal'nye spinovye modeli (model' Izinga, kalibrovochnaya model' Z2), tak i netrivial'nye nelokal'nye modeli kotorye ne byli izucheny ranee. Uporyadochennaya faza v takikh modelyakh sootvetstvuet nalichiyu glubokogo minimuma svobodnoi energii; “post-topologicheskimi” vozbuzhdeniyami yavlyayutsya protyazhennye defekty obobshchayushchie ponyatie domennoi stenki. Izvestno neskol'ko konstruktsii kvantovykh nizkoplotnostnykh kodov s konechnoi skorost'yu. V sootvetstvuyushchikh spinovykh modelyakh chislo razlichnykh tipov defektov eksponentsial'no veliko. V takikh modelyakh vozmozhen chisto entropiinyi fazovyi perekhod, kogda analog poverkhnostnogo natyazheniya dlya defektov kazhdogo tipa ostaetsya konechnym.

[A. A. Kovalev and L. P. Pryadko, “Spin glass reflection of the decoding transition for quantum error correcting codes”, arXiv:1311.7688]

MIPT Interdisciplinary center for basic research: colloquium, Wednesday, October 8, 2014, MIPT, GK 113, 5:00 pm
A.D.Mirlin (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)
Anderson localization: multifractality, symmetry, topology and interaction

V doklade budet predstavlen obzor sovremennogo sostoyaniya issledovanii v oblasti andersonovskoi lokalizatsii v neuporyadochennykh sistemakh. V chastnosti, budut obsuzhdeny: mul'tifraktal'nost' volnovykh funktsii v okrestnosti perekhodov Andersona ili mezhdu razlichnymi fazami topologicheskikh izolyatorov, klassy simmetrii neuporyadochennykh sistem i rol' simmetrii v lokalizatsii, effekty topologii, topologicheskie izolyatory i sverkhprovodniki, rol' mezhelektronnogo vzaimodeistviya.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, September 26, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
S. V. Zaitsev-Zotov (IRE RAN)
Vliyanie strukturnykh defektov i atomnykh stupenei na lokal'nuyu plotnost' sostoyanii atomno-chistoi poverkhnosti topologicheskogo izolyatora Bi2Se3

Predstavleny rezul'taty issledovaniya atomno-chistoi poverkhnosti topologicheskogo izolyatora Bi2Se3 metodami sverkhvysokovakuumnoi nizkotemperaturnoi skaniruyushchei tunnel'noi mikroskopii (STM) i spektroskopii (STS). Obnaruzheny defekty glubina zaleganiya i ozhidaemyi zaryad kotorykh sootvetstvuet r-tipu provodimosti ob'ema kristalla. Znak termo-eds takzhe sootvetstvuet r-tipu provodimosti. Rezul'taty issledovanii metodami tunnel'noi spektroskopii pokazyvayut, chto uroven' khimicheskogo potentsiala nakhoditsya vnutri zapreshchennoi zony ob'ema. Obnaruzheno izmenenie lokal'noi plotnosti sostoyanii vblizi kraya pyatisloinoi stupeni, kotoroe sootvetstvuet sdvigu polozheniya vershiny dirakovskogo konusa otnositel'no ob'emnoi zony ili zhe takzhe sdvigu khimicheskogo potentsiala vblizi kraya stupeni.

po rabote A.Yu. Dmitriev et al.,

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 26, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Maksym Serbyn, Z. Papic, Dmitry Abanin
Quantum quenches in the many-body localized phase

Many-body localized (MBL) systems are characterized by the absence of transport and thermalization, and therefore cannot be described by conventional statistical mechanics. In this talk I will discuss the behaviour of local observables in an isolated MBL system following a quantum quench. For the case of a global quench, the local observables reach stationary, highly non-thermal values at long times as a result of slow dephasing characteristic of the MBL phase. These stationary values retain the local memory of the initial state due to the existence of local integrals of motion in the MBL phase. The temporal fluctuations around stationary values exhibit universal power-law decay in time, with an exponent set by the localization length and the diagonal entropy of the initial state. Such a power-law decay holds for any local observable and is related to the logarithmic in time growth of entanglement in the MBL phase. This behaviour distinguishes the MBL phase from both the Anderson insulator (where no stationary state is reached), and from the ergodic phase (where relaxation is expected to be exponential). Quench protocols considered in this talk can be naturally implemented in systems of ultra cold atoms in disordered optical lattices, and the behaviour of local observables provides a direct experimental signature of many-body localization. [arXiv:1408.4105; arXiv:1403.0693]

Theory seminar, Thursday, September 25, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
V.E. Kravtsov (Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste)
Anderson localization models on Bethe Lattice and Random Regular Graphs: is the extended state always ergodic?
MIPT Interdisciplinary center for basic research: colloquium, Wednesday, September 24, 2014, MIPT, GK 113, 5:00 pm
V.E.Kravtsov (ICTP, Trieste, Italy)
Statistical properties of wave functions: disorder, fractality, localization
Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, September 19, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
M. V. Feigel'man
Theory seminar, Thursday, September 18, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
A.Yu. Kuntsevich (LPI)
Entropy measurements in 2D systems

In this talk I am going to discuss the experimental technique to measure entropy-per-electron in gated 2D systems, the we recently developed. We applied this technique to study magnetooscillations in Si and GaAs-based 2D systems and zero-perpendicular field effects. The latter originate from: (i) non-degeneracy of the Fermi system and (ii) electron-electron correlations. In particular, we explore enhanced effective mass in non-degenerate strongly correlated plasma regime EF < T < U (where U is the Coulomb energy e2 / ‹ r ›).

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, September 12, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
Artem Sboychakov (ITAE RAS, Moscow)
AA-stacked bilayer graphene in an applied electric field: Tunable
antiferromagnetism and coexisting exciton order parameter

We study electronic properties of AA-stacked bilayer graphene. In the single-particle approximation such a system has one electron band and one hole band crossing the Fermi level. If the bilayer is undoped, the Fermi surfaces of these bands coincide. Such a band structure is unstable with respect to a set of spontaneous symmetry violations. Specifically, strong on-site Coulomb repulsion stabilizes antiferromagnetic order. At small doping and low temperatures, the homogeneous phase is unstable and experiences phase separation into an undoped antiferromagnetic insulator and a metal. The metallic phase can be either antiferromagnetic (commensurate or incommensurate) or paramagnetic depending on the system parameters. We derive the phase diagram of the system on the doping-temperature plane and find that under certain conditions, the transition from the paramagnetic to the antiferromagnetic phase may demonstrate reentrance. The application of the transverse voltage induces the exciton order parameter coexisting with antiferromagnetism. The value of this second order parameter is proportional to the biased voltage and the value of the nearest- neighbor inter-plane Coulomb repulsion.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, September 5, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
M.V. Feigelman and A.S. Ioselevich
Coulomb blockade for tunneling through a “long island”

We consider a Coulomb blockade effects for tunnelling through a piece of wire with large resistance $R\gg 1$. This system can not be treated as a zero-dimensional one, as the dynamics of internal inhomogeneous degrees of freedom is crucial. At moderately high temperatures the linear conductance $G$ of the system is suppressed due to the one-dimensional Coulomb zero bias anomaly effect. At low $T$, besides the standard activational factor, there is an additional $T$-independent (though also exponentially strong!) suppression of $G$. It arises due to the tunnelling evolution of the charge in the wire to the equivipotential distribution. In the intermediate range of $T$ the $G(T)$ dependence is a power law, as in the phenomenological environmental theory. The effective ``environmental resistance'', entering the power exponent, is found explicitly. It depends on the length of the wire and on the positions of the contacts.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Monday, July 28, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 10:00 am
E. Sukhorukov (University of Geneve)
Fermi Edge Singularity in Chiral One-dimensional Systems far from Equilibrium

We study the effects of strong coupling of a localized state charge to one-dimensional electronic channels out of equilibrium. While the state of this charge and the coupling strength determine the scattering phase shifts in the channels, the non-equilibrium partitioning noise induces the tunneling transitions to the localized state. The strong coupling leads to a non-perturbative backaction effect which is manifested in the orthogonality catastrophe and the Fermi edge singularity in the transition rates. The non-Gaussian component of noise brakes the charge symmetry, shifting the position of the tunneling resonance depending on the sign of the dissipative current and the transparency of the noise emitting partitioning quantum point contact.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, July 4, 2014, ITF, 11:00 am
Y. Tanaka (Nagoya University, Japan)
Theory of topological superconductivity
Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, June 20, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Ivan Protopopov

We show that nonequilibrium phenomena in dispersive Luttinger liquids posses remarkable weak-strong coupling duality between bosonic and fermionic descriptions. The duality manifests itself both in the collisionless dynamics of a density pulse (via crossover from essentially free-fermion evolution to hydrodynamics) and in the relaxation of fermionic and bosonic excitations.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, May 30, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Konstantin Tikhonov
Defazirovka elektronov v grafene za schet vzaimodeistviya s izgibnymi fononami.

My issleduem defazirovku elektronov v grafene za schet vzaimodeistviya s izgibnymi fononami. Okazyvaetsya, chto sootvetstvuyushchii vklad mozhet byt' poryadka elektron-elektronnogo vklada dazhe pri nizkikh temperaturakh. Vychislenie provoditsya v shirokom diapazone temperatur, prodemonstrirovano, chto obsuzhdaemyi vklad menyaet temperaturnoe povedenie s T2 na T c rostom temperatury i rastet s elektronnoi plotnost'yu, v otlichie ot vklada elektron-elektronnykh vzaimodeistvii, chto delaet printsipial'no vozmozhnym ego obnaruzhenie v eksperimentakh po slaboi lokalizatsii v grafene.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, April 25, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Denis Basko (CNRS, Grenobl')
Ob umnozhenii nositelei v grafene

Izuchaetsya relaksatsiya odnogo vozbuzhdennogo elektrona v zone provodimosti grafena pri nulevoi temperature i urovne Fermi v dirakovskoi tochke posredstvom ispuskaniya elektronno-dyrochnykh par za schet kulonovskogo vzaimodeistviya. Vazhnuyu rol' v etom protsesse igraet otklonenie spektra ot konicheskoi formy (trigonal'naya gofrirovka). V rezul'tate, relaksatsiya okazyvaetsya zapreshchennoi dlya nekotorykh napravlenii nachal'nogo impul'sa elektrona i razreshennoi dlya drugikh (dlya etogo sluchaya soschitano vremya relaksatsii).

Theory seminar, Thursday, April 24, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
V.Ya. Pokrovsky (IRE RAS)
Unikal'nye elektromekhanicheskie svoistva kvaziodnomernykh provodnikov s volnoi zaryadovoi plotnosti

Rech' poidet o kvaziodnomernykh provodnikakh, v kotorykh nizhe temperatury paierlsovskogo perekhoda voznikaet volna zaryadovoi plotnosti (VZP). Bol'shinstvo takikh soedinenii predstavlyayut soboi nitevidnye kristally. Budet rasskazano o sleduyushchikh effektakh: snizhenii uprugikh modulei pri sryve VZP s primesei, izmenenii dliny obraztsov pod deistviem elektricheskogo polya ili termotsiklirovaniya, neodnorodnoi deformatsii obraztsov v elektricheskom pole. Naibolee podrobno budet rasskazano o deformatsii krucheniya, v chastnosti, o krutil'nykh kolebaniyakh. Vse perechislennye effekty mozhno kachestvenno opisat' na yazyke uprugogo vzaimodeistviya VZP s reshetkoi kristalla. Odnako est' osnovaniya polagat', chto takoe opisanie — chrezmerno uproshchennoe. [Literatura: V.Ya. Pokrovskii, S.G. Zybtsev, M.V. Nikitin, I.G. Gorlova, V.F. Nasretdinova, S.V. Zaitsev-Zotov. «Vysokochastotnye, „kvantovye“ i elektromekhanicheskie effekty v kvaziodnomernykh kristallakh s volnoi zaryadovoi plotnosti», UFN, 183, 33 (2013).]

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 18, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
V. V. Pogosov (ITPE)
Veroyatnostnyi podkhod k resheniyu uravnenii Richardsona-Godena (anzatsa Bete)

Predlozhen novyi pokhod k resheniyu uravnenii Richardsona-Godena, kotorye opredelyayut sobstvennye sostoyaniya gamil'toniana teorii Bardina-Kupera-Shriffera (BKSh). Vmesto neposredstvennogo resheniya etikh uravnenii mozhno pereiti k veroyatnostnomu predstavleniyu i zatem rekonstruirovat' polozheniya kornei etikh uravnenii na kompleksnoi ploskosti, ispol'zuya metody integrirovaniya. Pri etom voznikayut integraly sel'bergovskogo tipa, figuriruyushchie v konformnoi teorii polya i teorii sluchainykh matrits. V rabote provedeny analiticheskie raschety dlya nizkoenergeticheskoi chasti spektra sistemy v termodinamicheskom predele, dlya kotorogo podtverzhdeno soglasie so srednepolevymi predskazaniyami BKSh. Takzhe predstavleny nekotorye rezul'taty dlya sistem proizvol'nogo razmera, dlya chego byla privlechena ideya o simmetrii mezhdu parami elektronov i parami dyrok. Veroyatnostnyi podkhod mozhet byt' polezen i dlya resheniya drugikh tipov uravnenii Bete.

Theory seminar, Thursday, April 17, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Yu.I. Latyshev (IRE im. V.A. Kotel'nikova RAN)
Kvantovaya interferentsiya dirakovskikh fermionov v nanoperforirovannom grafene

Rassmotreny nedavnie eksperimenty po effektu Aaronova-Boma na provodyashchikh kraevykh sostoyaniyakh, lokalizovannykh vokrug nanootverstii v nanoperforirovannovannykh grafenovykh strukturakh [1], a takzhe eksperimenty po nablyudeniyu orbital'nogo kvantovaniya kraevykh dirakovskikh fermionov pri ikh dvizhenii vokrug nanootverstiya v nulevom magnitnom pole [2]. Rezul'taty eksperimentov oboikh tipov soglasuyutsya s teoriei kraevykh sostoyanii tammovskogo tipa v grafene. Literatura: [1] Yu.I. Latyshev et al., cond-mat arXiv : 1310.0991. [2] Yu.I. Latyshev, A.P. Orlov, A.V. Frolov et al., JETP Lett., 98, 214 (2013).

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 11, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
E. V. Devyatov (IFTT)
Dinamika namagnichennosti, vyzvannaya protekayushchim tokom, na granitse dvumernoi elektronnoi sistemy s sil'nym spin-orbital'nym vzaimodeistviem

My eksperimental'no issledovali transport cherez interfeis mezhdu ferromagnetikom (permalloi) i kraem dvumernoi elektronnoi sistemy s sil'nym spin-orbital'nym vzaimodeistviem tipa Rashby. My obnaruzhili sil'no nelineinye transportnye kharakteristiki v oblasti malykh tokov pri millikel'vinovykh temperaturakh. Obnaruzhennaya nelineinost' polnost'yu podavlyaetsya pri dostizhenii nekotorykh znachenii temperatury, magnitnogo polya ili toka cherez interfeis. My interpretiruem dannoe povedenie kak rezul'tat spinovoi akkumulyatsii vblizi interfeisa i ee absorbtsii, vyzvannoi protekayushchim tokom (magnetization torque).

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, April 4, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
Dmitry Bagrets (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne)
Quantum criticality in quasi one-dimensional topological nanowires

Using the combination of analytical and numerical techniques we develop the theory of quantum criticality in disordered topological multi-channel nanowires of symmetry classes AIII and BDI [1]. The minimal representative phase portrait is characterized by two parameters $(\mu, w)$, where $\mu$ is the external control parameter (e.g. the chemical potential) and $w$ is the disorder strength. With the increase of $w$ at a fixed value of $\mu$ the wires generically undergo a sequence of topological phase transitions before the asymptotic state of a trivial Anderson insulator is reached. The universal description of the systems is given in terms of two parameters $(g,\chi)$, where $g$ is conductance and $\chi$ is a topological angle. Contour lines of half-integer valued $\chi$ in $(\mu, w)$-parameter space define phase boundaries between distinct topological sectors. Upon increasing the length of the wire, the pair $(g, \chi)$ exhibits flow similar to the celebrated two parameter flow describing the class A quantum Hall insulator. However, unlike the quantum Hall system, an exact analytical description of the entire phase diagram can be given. We corroborate the quantitative validity of our theory by comparison to numerical transfer matrix computations.

[1] A. Altland, D. Bagrets, L. Fritz, A. Kamenev, H. Schmiedt, arXiv:1402.1738

Theory seminar, Thursday, April 3, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
L.B. Ioffe
Fazovaya diagramma tsepochki bezdissipativnykh dzhozefsonovskikh kontaktov
Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, March 28, 2014, Landau ITP, 2:00 pm
P. Grigor'ev
Magnitosoprotivlenie sloistykh metallov

Budet dana klassifikatsiya razlichnykh predel'nykh sluchaev, svyazannykh s sootnosheniyami mezhdu integralom mezhsloevogo pereskoka, rasstoyaniem, i shirinoi urovnei Landau. V kazhdom predel'nom sluchae budut ukazany metod vychisleniya mezhsloevoi provodimosti v sil'no anizotropnykh kvazidvumernykh metallakh, oblast' primenimosti etogo metoda, i glavnye rezul'taty etikh raschetov.

[*] P. D. Grigoriev, "Longitudinal interlayer magnetoresistance in quasi-two-dimensional metals", Phys. Rev. B 88, 054415 (2013).

a takzhe
[1] P. D. Grigoriev, «Theory of the Shubnikov-de Haas effect in quasi-two-dimensional metals», Phys. Rev. B 67, 144401 (2003).
[2] P. D. Grigoriev, “Monotonic growth of interlayer magnetoresistance in strong magnetic field in very anisotropic layered metals”, JETP Lett. 94, 47 (2011).
[3] P. D. Grigoriev, “Weakly incoherent regime of interlayer conductivity in magnetic field”, Phys. Rev. B 83, 245129 (2011).
[4] P. D. Grigoriev, M. V. Kartsovnik, W. Biberacher, «Magnetic-field-induced dimensional crossover in the organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4», Phys. Rev. B 86, 165125 (2012).
[5] A. D. Grigoriev and P.D. Grigoriev, Crossover from the weak to strong-field behavior of the longitudinal interlayer magnetoresistance in quasi-two-dimensional conductors, Fizika nizkikh temperatur 40(4), 472 (2014).

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 28, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
G.E. Volovik
Flat-band and room-temperature superconductivity
Theory seminar, Thursday, March 27, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Andrey Turlapov (IPF RAN, Nizhnii Novgorod)
Perekhod mezhdu fermi- i boze-statistikoi v 2-mernoi sisteme

V edinom eksperimente proiskhodit perestroika sistemy mezhdu bozonnym i fermionnym sostoyaniem. Eksperiment vypolnen s gazom fermi-atomov litiya-6 s s-vzaimodeistviem pri temperature ~ 10 nK. Pri roste vzaimodeistviya atomy ob'edinyayutsya v 2-atomnye molekuly bozony. 2-mernost' dostignuta plotnym uderzhaniem vdol' odnogo iz napravlenii. Chistota ul'trakholodnoi atomnoi sistemy daet vozmozhnost' sravnivat' dannye s teoreticheskimi modelyami, postroennymi iz pervykh printsipov, bez svobodnykh parametrov. V chastnosti, naidennoe nami otlichie davleniya slabo vzaimodeistvuyushchego fermi-gaza ot predskazaniya dlya odnorodnoi fermi-zhidkosti mozhet stat' stimulom dlya razvitiya teorii 2-mernykh mezoskopicheskikh sistem. Izmereniya v sil'no vzaimodeistvuyushchem gaze, mezhdu fermi- i boze-rezhimami, pokazyvayut neobkhodimost' ucheta 3-mernogo kharaktera vzaimodeistvii pri modelirovanii gaza s 2-mernoi kinematikoi.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 21, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Ya.V. Fominov
Otchet o XVIII Mezhdunarodnom simpoziume "Nanofizika i nanoelektronika", 10-14 marta 2014 g., Nizhnii Novgorod
Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, March 7, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
S.V. Iordanskii
Provodimost' napolovinu zapolnennogo urovnya Landau
Theory seminar, Monday, February 24, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 10:00 am
Boris Narozhny (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)
Spinful fermionic ladders at incommensurate filling: Phase diagram, local perturbations, and ionic potentials

We study the effect of external potential on transport properties of the fermionic two-leg ladder model. The response of the system to a local perturbation is strongly dependent on the ground state properties of the system and especially on the dominant correlations. We categorize all phases and transitions in the model (for incommensurate filling) and introduce ’’hopping-driven transitions’’ that the system undergoes as the inter-chain hopping is increased from zero. We also describe the response of the system to an ionic potential. The physics of this effect is similar to that of the single impurity, except that the ionic potential can affect the bulk properties of the system and in particular induce true long range order.

Theory seminar, Thursday, February 13, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 3:00 pm
M.A. Zudov (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, USA)
Nonequilibrium transport in high Landau levels of 2D systems: recent developments

Over the last decade, magneto transport in very high Landau levels of high-mobility 2D electron systems (2DES) hosted in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells revealed a variety of new intriguing phenomena. Two prime examples of these phenomena are microwave-induced resistance oscillations (MIRO) and associated zero-resistance states which emerge when a high-mobility 2DES is irradiated by microwave radiation. Another prominent effect is Hall field-induced resistance oscillations (HIRO) which appear in differential resistivity when a system is driven by a dc field. Both MIRO and HIRO originate from inter-Landau level transitions owing to photon absorption and/or impurity scattering. In this talk I will discuss our recent experimental studies on i) Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in conventional high-mobility 2D electron gas in GaAs/Al0.24Ga0.76As quantum wells irradiated by sub-terahertz (up to 0.4 THz) radiation, ii) MIRO and HIRO in AlxGa1-xAs/Al0.24Ga0.76As quantum wells with x up to 0.0078, and, finally, iii) observation of MIRO in a moderate-mobility 2D hole gas hosted in a pure Ga/Si0.2Ge0.8 quantum well.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, February 7, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Karen Michaeli (Weizmann Inst)
Novel phases in topological superconducting quantum dots

Recent progress in realizing topological superconductors has paved the road to study new physical phenomena resulting from the non-abelian statistics of the Majorana modes they host. A particularly interesting situation arises when Majorana bound states in a closed topological superconducting dot are coupled to external normal leads. In this talk , we will show that interactions with the quantum dot drive the lead electrons into a non-Fermi liquid phase, which can be understood by mapping the problem to a variant of a Kondo system. Interestingly, the non-Fermi liquid states in these systems are more robust than in the conventional two channel Kondo problem. This is because realizations with different numbers of metallic leads are connected to each other by a line of fixed points. We will conclude with a discussion of the experimental consequences of our theory.

Theory seminar, Thursday, February 6, 2014, Kapitza Institute, 11:30 am
Karen Michaeli (Weizmann Institute of Science)
Probing interactions with thermal transport

Thermal and thermoelectric conductivities are ideal probes of interaction effects in correlated electron systems. This is because, in contrast to an electric current, a heat current can be transmitted also by neutral quasiparticles. For instance, energy can be carried by excitations that mediate interactions between other quasiparticles. In my talk I will present two examples of the dramatic effect of interactions on thermal and thermoelectric transport phenomena. The first is the Nernst effect in the vicinity of the superconducting phase transition. I will discuss the anomalous behavior of the Nernst effect near the magnetic-field-induced quantum critical phase transition. The second example is thermal conductivity in spin liquids. Spin liquids can form in the vicinity of the Mott metal-insulator transition when the charge is gapped while the spin degrees of freedom strongly fluctuate. These low energy excitations, dubbed spinons, can conduct heat. The spinons also exhibit a magnetic interaction that leads to non-Fermi liquid behavior. I will show that even in the absence of disorder this strong interaction provides an efficient relaxation mechanism for the heat current.

Department of quantum mesoscopics: seminar, Friday, January 31, 2014, Landau ITP, 3:00 pm
S. I. Dorozhkin (IFTT)
Flips of electric field in microwave-induced states with spontaneously broken symmetry

We present new results on the bistability effect recently observed [Dorozhkin et al., Nature Physics 7, 336 (2011)] in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to the microwave radiation. The effect appears as switching between two states with different electric potential distribution across a sample. Our results here imply that the main difference between these two states is an opposite direction of a long lengthscale electric field which arises spontaneously under conditions when the observable magnetoresistance tends to zero. Although a possibility of the field reversal is an inherent property of states with spontaneously broken symmetry, so far such effect was never observed under stationary external conditions.

Scientific Council of the Landau Institute, Friday, January 31, 2014, Landau Institute, 11:30 am
Igor Lukyanchuk
Static and dynamic properties of polarization domains in ferroelectric nanostructures

Developing of novel technologies of functionalization of nano-size ferroelectric samples emerged the growing interest in exploration of such naturally-formed structures as polarization domains. I will present two recent results concerning the dynamic and static properties of domain self-organization.
The first part of my talk will concern the possible application of the domain structures in emerging technologies of Terahertz-detecting devices. We have studied the dynamical permittivity in ferroelectric nanometricaly-thin films with periodic domain structure, sandwiched between two paraelectric layers. The resulting frequency-dependent permittivity demonstrates collective resonance mode in sub-Terahertz frequency region and Debye-like relaxation behavior at low frequencies.
In the second part of my talk I will consider the study of domain-shape instabilities, recently observed in the ferroelectric polymer PVDF-TrFE films having the lower orthorhombic crystallographic symmetry and demonstrating the hexagonal domain faceting. This effect can arise from purely electrostatic depolarizing forces. We show that in contrast to magnetic bubble shape domains where such type of deformation instability has a predominantly elliptical character, the emergence of more symmetrical circular harmonics is favored in ferroelectrics with high dielectric constant.